Meaning of DAMAGE in English

DAMAGE

I. noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a damaging/crippling strike (= having a bad effect on an industry )

The company now faces the prospect of a crippling strike.

accidental damage

Buy an insurance policy that covers accidental damage .

an earthquake destroys/damages sth

The earthquake completely destroyed all the buildings on the island.

badly damaged

Both cars were badly damaged in the accident.

be beyond repair/be damaged beyond repair (= be so badly damaged that it cannot be repaired )

Unfortunately the engine is beyond repair.

brain damage

Potts suffered severe brain damage in the crash.

burn/damage your skin

Strong sunlight can damage your skin.

cause damage

A fire had broken out and caused severe damage to the roof.

compensatory damages

She was awarded a large sum in compensatory damages .

criminal damage British English (= damaging someone's property illegally )

He was charged with criminal damage to his boss's car.

crop damage

The storms caused crop damage across the country.

damage an industry

Financial scandals have damaged the industry in recent years.

damage sb’s reputation

She wouldn’t do anything to damage her family’s reputation.

damage your health

There is no doubt that smoking can seriously damage your health.

damage your image

Has this scandal damaged the company’s image?

damage/destroy a habitat

Widening the road will uproot trees and damage wildlife habitat.

damaged...ligaments

damaged ankle ligaments

damage/harm to the environment

A lot of chemicals used in industry cause harm to the environment.

do damage (to sth/sb)

A mistake like that can do a lot of damage to your career.

environmental damage

the environmental damage caused by opencast mining

fatally flawed/weakened/damaged etc

Bolton’s idea was fatally flawed.

frost damage (= damage to plants, caused by frost )

Some crop regions may have suffered frost damage.

harm/damage the economy (= make it less successful )

Sanctions have damaged the economy.

harm/damage the environment

The government insists that the dam will not harm the environment.

harmful/damaging (= causing harm or damage to something or someone )

the harmful effects of drinking too much alcohol

Some of the effects can be quite damaging.

incalculable harm/damage/suffering etc

The outbreak of hostilities will cause incalculable misery.

inspect the damage

I got out of the car to inspect the damage .

insure (sth/sb) against loss/damage/theft/sickness etc

It is wise to insure your property against storm damage.

lower/damage morale

We need to avoid damaging people's morale.

negative/damaging (= having a bad effect )

The expansion of the airport would have a negative impact on the environment.

punitive damages (= money paid to someone who is the victim of a crime )

The jury awarded punitive damages .

recover damages

He was entitled to recover damages from the defendants.

repair the damage

Neil tried to repair the damage that his statements had caused.

seek compensation/damages (= ask for money because of something bad you have suffered )

The other two may seek compensation for wrongful imprisonment.

serious damage

The explosion sparked a fire which caused serious damage to their flat.

seriously damaged

His reputation had been seriously damaged.

severe damage

The blast caused severe damage to the surrounding buildings.

severely damaged

The hotel was severely damaged by fire last November.

sth destroys/damages a crop

When disease destroyed the crop, famine followed.

sth is damaged/destroyed by fire

The school was badly damaged by fire.

storm damage

A lot of buildings suffered storm damage.

sue for damages (= in order to get money )

The railway may sue for damages because of loss of revenue.

suffer damage

The U.S. ship suffered no damage.

suffered...brain damage

Potts suffered severe brain damage in the crash.

undermine/damage credibility

A number of factors undermine the credibility of these statistics.

undermine/damage/weaken sb’s confidence (= make someone have less confidence )

The situation in the US was undermining foreign confidence in the dollar.

undo the damage

We cannot undo the damage of a lifetime in only 30 days.

untold damage

The rumours will do untold damage to his reputation.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

accidental

Yet another option is to buy a policy which itself covers accidental damage without the need for buying a separate extension.

Most expensive of all is an all-risks policy which also gives wide cover against accidental damage .

Personal Liability ... Up to £500,000 To cover your legal liability for accidental injury to third parties or accidental damage to their property.

The pipes or cables must require repair or replacement due to accidental damage not due to wear and tear.

All pipes should be bracketed to avoid accidental damage .

The cost of tracing the damage is covered provided there has been accidental damage to the pipes or cables.

We found it was more useful in stopping the debarking of trees or accidental damage to shrubs.

considerable

All these may do considerable damage to his reputation.

It could do considerable damage if it happened to hit some of the more fragile equipment.

Stories were told about how they had actually done considerable damage to some visiting fans when situations had got out of hand.

No warships were present, but considerable damage was inflicted on cargo vessels, with which the harbor was jammed.

Cannons can cause considerable damage on your deep ranks too, but this is less worrying.

The attacks caused considerable damage but no injuries.

All the attacks caused considerable damage , but no one was injured.

criminal

The 31-year-old man, suspected of causing criminal damage , had been arrested at Sheerness, Kent.

One might well ask how important the element of criminal damage is to the rationale of the aggravated offence.

The official was convicted of criminal damage for ramming the craft with a motorboat, then whacking it with a shovel.

He's admitted shoplifting, theft and criminal damage but denies two alleged assaults on police.

I was in a bad way at that time, I felt really depressed, so I went round causing criminal damage .

Are the miscreants aware that they are guilty of trespass and criminal damage ?

environmental

We will tackle the problem of congestion and environmental damage by enabling local authorities to provide better quality transport.

Socallration losses but also tremendous environmental damage .

Wesley Smith Opponents say it's a policy doomed to fail - creating massive environmental damage .

When that happens, the result is environmental damage and human suffering.

Immediate improvements in the rail network, allowing more movement of goods and passengers by rail and less environmental damage .

But the precise size of the spill and the incumbent environmental damage remained unclear Saturday.

Some items are harmless in themselves, but cause enormous environmental damage to make. 3.

Local self-sufficiency is further hindered by widespread environmental damage .

extensive

This caused a violent explosion resulting in extensive damage .

With more extensive damage he will just repeat the proverb-one example of what is called concrete thinking.

More frequent and more extensive damage is evident on all the subsequent categories.

You may not know how extensive the damage is until warmer weather.

There is an undocumented belief that these patients have a very high stricture recurrence rate because of extensive oesophageal damage and fibrosis.

Tisaby could not say exactly how many windows were broken in the building nor how extensive the damage was in dollar terms.

According to Moscow radio reports there followed a renewed rampage by rioters through the city resulting in extensive damage .

In fact Etruria was hit by incendiaries several times, but thankfully survived without extensive damage .

great

I have acknowledged the great damage done to the hon. and learned Member for Leicester, West.

The greatest damage is in the Adirondacks, the next greatest in Vermont, and the next New Hampshire.

But the greatest potential damage to Rangers' hopes of victory would be the loss of McCoist with a calf injury.

With government number-crunchers idle so long, no one is sure just how great the damage will be.

Furthermore, other ecosystems have suffered greater damage than the Amazon.

He let me know of my flaws only after they had wrought a great deal of damage .

You have to cause a great deal of damage to a Troll to stop it regenerating.

In particular, extreme frosts below about - 20 to - 25 to - y reported to cause great damage to mature trees.

irreparable

Why should his death, however tragic, threaten irreparable damage to an institutional structure of such proven strength?

In truth, the society's decision will cause irreparable damage to the cause of music.

At that stage they were completely outweighed by the threat of irreparable damage to her health and risk to her life.

Would they ever be able to extricate themselves from it without irreparable damage being done?

The Stalinist phase did all but irreparable damage to the international reputation of Soviet historiography.

Parking the trailer Simply parking the trailer with the stands firmly down will not prevent really strong winds from doing irreparable damage .

We are only one generation away from causing irreparable damage to the Earth's biosphere.

Numerous environmental campaigners have alleged that Fisons's peat-cutting operations are causing irreparable damage to the fragile habitat of lowland peat-bogs.

irreversible

We are looking forward to expert advice in your column before we do ourselves irreversible brain damage .

This has done severe, irreversible damage to our identity.

Prolonged fixation often lead to irreversible damage as muscles atrophied.

A third priority is to stop irreversible damage to the natural environment.

Conservationists however, claim that many licenses must be immediately revoked to avoid irreversible damage .

Second, if the condition goes unrecognised, or is incorrectly treated, irreversible damage may occur.

As a consequence some have suffered irreversible damage to their health.

minor

Later another partially ignited device was found in a second furniture shop but caused only minor damage .

Here in Scituate, the storm caused minor damage , flooding streets and knocking down power lines.

Up to 200 others suffered minor damage .

In some states, no-fault insurance has made it easier for the citizen to collect for minor collison damage in automobile wrecks.

There was only minor structural damage to roofs and chimneys.

Historic Curry Village also escaped flooding, the only minor damage inflicted by a rock slide.

Torquay Deaf Club suffered some minor damage , but nothing which could not be easily repaired.

Such acts often involve minor damage to property or disruption of certain routine social events.

permanent

But he said Cherie should not suffer permanent damage if cured soon.

No permanent damage was done to the substation, officials said.

He started to have fits and he suffered permanent damage .

But if the artery stays plugged up for something like 15 minutes or more, permanent damage occurs.

Too much strain on the relaxin-softened tissue can cause permanent damage .

Even if you suffer permanent damage but are still able to work, this is the only way around it.

The order to create wealth can never justify permanent damage to the balance of nature.

physical

The offline operator is responsible for mounting and dismounting the offline media and inspecting media items for physical damage .

Angelakos, 76 and retired since 1990, says the physical damage and emotional effects of his encounter have faded.

They are convicted of physical harm or damage infrequently and they are in general petty and trivial offenders.

In point of physical damage inflicted, it was true enough that the raid did not accomplish a great deal.

The tortious principle gives protection to the ultimate consumer of a product where the product has caused physical damage .

But a serious accident can cause far more than purely physical damage .

Generally speaking, there is no tort action where the product is merely defective and has not caused any physical damage .

But she had suffered no physical damage or identifiable psychological illness.

potential

But the greatest potential damage to Rangers' hopes of victory would be the loss of McCoist with a calf injury.

The market has a mechanism for ensuring even that the potential risk of damage to the environment can be costed.

The potential economic damage is not restricted to arable farming.

psychological

In it we can see reflected the ecological, psychological , spiritual damage and the massive human waste of this war.

You should also be aware of the psychological damage you are capable of doing to yourself.

The scourge had abated, but psychological damage had been done, which was not so readily repaired.

Men can be passive without grave psychological damage only if the women are passive also.

On this occasion City accepted with relish the chances which came their way and inflicted serious psychological damage on their dejected opponents.

punitive

The judgment reflected a refusal by the court to limit punitive damage awards.

In exchange, the companies would be protected from punitive damage awards on past misconduct but not future misconduct.

serious

She suffered serious brain damage and was retired from her job on medical grounds.

Unlike Washington state, there were no reports of injuries or serious damage .

Nothing around us spoke of serious damage .

Much more rarely, Candida can invade the eye, kidney, liver or brain, doing serious damage .

The Nimbus was undamaged but the K8 had one wing severed at about half-span as well as other serious damage .

Everyone gets very wet but it is worth while getting soaked if it saves even one glider from serious damage .

Mr Quinn, 55, suffered 33 rib fractures, serious damage to internal organs and severe head and neck injuries.

On this occasion City accepted with relish the chances which came their way and inflicted serious psychological damage on their dejected opponents.

severe

That is nothing short of irresponsibility, and inflicts severe damage on our democracy.

A similar overdose left a second patient, Maureen Bateman, with severe heart damage .

In 1970 he suffered severe brain damage in a road accident which effectively ended his career.

Any creatures that breathe the surface air directly are subject to severe lung damage , lung edema, and death.

It is likely that very severe environmental damage would be done if parts of this reserve were activated.

The possible side effects are severe kidney damage .

With less severe colonic damage , terra fullonica was able to prevent the occurrence of systemic endotoxaemia.

Paralyzed muscles lost tone and became flaccid; with severe damage they further degenerated through shrinkage and atrophy.

structural

Minor bombing incidents in Buenos Aires and Santiago caused little structural damage and nobody was reported to have been injured.

And the occasional burst pipe can cause major structural damage rather quickly.

No one was injured but the interchange was closed because of fears of major structural damage .

But most people found only busy signals, as structural damage and call volume overwhelmed local phone systems.

Offices of the Levi jeans company and the computer firm, Casio, were being checked yesterday for structural damage .

More structural damage could be hidden, one reporter said to explain Seattle's largely unscathed appearance.

It caused £1,500 million of structural damage to at least 35 buildings.

There was only minor structural damage to roofs and chimneys.

untold

Its regime - which Prince Philip believed would turn his sons into real men - had caused Charles untold misery and damage .

Inaccurate information from an uninformed physician can cause untold damage to the best educational program.

However, incorrect stretching can cause untold damage and even permanent injuries in extreme cases.

They were already well within the shield zone and, had the barge been hostile, it could have inflicted untold damage .

The slide seemed empty, yet its contents could do untold damage .

On the contrary, said the voice, it could do his case untold damage .

It could inflict untold damage if he were to break that trust and be indiscreet.

■ NOUN

award

The judgment reflected a refusal by the court to limit punitive damage awards .

That would afford him some shelter from some creditors but would not discharge these damage awards .

In Milwaukee, numerous civil rights lawsuits led to monetary damage awards to victims of police actions.

However, there were no reported cases of damage awards or sheriffs removed from office.

In exchange, the companies would be protected from punitive damage awards on past misconduct but not future misconduct.

Punitive damage awards often run into the millions of dollars, some-times hundreds of millions.

Or, he can plead with the judge to cut the damage award .

Fujisaki ordered the damage awards stayed for 10 days while post-trial motions are filed.

brain

She suffered serious brain damage and was retired from her job on medical grounds.

He came into this world pretty beaten up, with what they considered to be soft neurological brain damage .

We are looking forward to expert advice in your column before we do ourselves irreversible brain damage .

Over-consumption causes temporary brain damage , impaired vision and often results in prolonged vomiting.

All have returned to normal without permanent damage , although hyponatremia occurring during surgery has resulted in death or permanent brain damage.

In 1970 he suffered severe brain damage in a road accident which effectively ended his career.

In extreme cases they can suffer brain damage or die.

claim

This is not storm and should not be dealt with as a storm damage claim .

control

Investors remained sceptical of Tory damage control and subsequent polls showing a closer race.

It is more like ordinary political damage control .

Clinton also proved to be a master of damage control on the so-called character issues.

Calipari has spotted problems and implemented damage control .

It felt good to have something important and challenging to keep one busy, even if it was damage control .

Korten, 48, knows a lot about damage control .

fire

There is a great deal of information available about fire damage to property, but little on diseases related to industrial work.

Most of the fire damage was confined to the restaurant and several Fox offices.

In Wagon Mound the kind of damage that needed to be foreseeable was fire damage.

Explosions that occur at high enough altitudes will lay down severe shock and fire damage without the fireball ever contacting the ground.

It sustained a lot of fire damage when the labs went up.

Recent incidents include £2 million fire damage to Bellahouston Academy in Glasgow.

In 1917 Mawson was commissioned to replan Salonika, following extensive fire damage .

This was as near as they dared to approach to avoid the risk of fire damage to the vehicles.

flood

The assistance comes from the Bellwin scheme which can be activated for emergency relief after exceptional storm or flood damage .

Dickson -- with no garage and no basement -- reported no flood damage .

I hope they will still claim that rain belongs to them when people put in insurance claims for flood damage .

Schafer said late Monday he hoped damage assessments for public and private flood damage from other counties would be collected by Friday.

She feared the bounds of her mind would burst and she would be swamped, her sanity irretrievable in the flood damage .

Homeowners insurance does not cover flood damage .

frost

Avoid an east-facing situation to prevent frost damage and cut back long growth immediately after flowering.

The market lost its earlier gains on perceptions the coldest temperatures came in areas where previous frost damage forced an early harvest.

This can then encourage rot to grow on timber, and may also result in frost damage to masonry in cold weather.

In mild winters apples buds began to break soon after Christmas, leaving them vulnerable to frost damage .

Service pipes can run the length of the house and may need insulating against frost damage where exposed.

ligament

Flanker Len Dineen received a broken ankle, and no.8 Victor Donnelly knee ligament damage .

He suffered ligament damage in his hand two weeks ago in Palm Springs that required cortisone shots.

Meanwhile, defender Graham Hill, sidelined since the start of the season by knee ligament damage , has resumed full training.

He at least was heartened that there was no ligament damage found.

Thomas will also miss most of those matches after having his right ankle put in plaster to repair ligament damage .

After the game, she tearfully spoke of possible ligament damage .

Sterland has missed the whole season so far with ankle ligament damage .

But the watching scout only saw 27-goal Erskine carried off with suspected knee ligament damage .

limitation

In truth Gene probably believes that the forces of darkness are gathering, but he also believes in damage limitation .

It was to be an ugly demonstration; damage limitation was not on the agenda.

Its policy is damage limitation , not prevention.

Alec Stewart's 102-ball 55 never smacked of more than damage limitation .

But damage limitation is not perhaps the best way to manage an election campaign when you are in opposition.

Franks was busily engaged in a damage limitation exercise in Washington.

He started on a kind of-well - what Mum and I used to call one of his damage limitation exercises.

Their interests will best be served by damage limitation , but Zhu may yet regret siding with them so quickly.

liver

The role of genes encoding other alcohol metabolising enzymes in a genetic predisposition to alcoholic liver damage has yet to be explored.

In high doses, vitamin A can cause brittle nails, hair loss, headaches and liver damage .

These data suggest that the risk of liver damage is greatest in patients with active viral replication before operation.

Trichloroethene, a probable human carcinogen, can cause liver damage and genetic mutations in both human and animal populations.

Their liver damage is usually mild, dose dependent, and reversible when the drug is stopped.

This also seems to be the mechanism of piroxicam induced liver damage .

Methionine or an alternative drug, N-acetylcysteine, prevents liver damage by boosting the levels of glutathione.

They claim that he removed healthy wombs and bungled routine operations, leaving them with bladder, kidney and liver damage .

property

Pyro may also have a claim for his property damage .

About eighty were injured, and most of the property damage was limited to broken windows and overturned cars.

This principle is illustrated in relation to property damage by the following case.

Thus began a series of violent public demonstrations that brought about severe property damage , bloodshed, and death.

Some property damage was foreseeable and the fact that it was more extensive than might have been foreseen did not matter.

No deaths were recorded, and property damage was limited.

An obvious risk of property damage alone is insufficient for manslaughter, but may suffice for the driving offences.

This is clearly narrower than property damage .

storm

This is not storm and should not be dealt with as a storm damage claim.

It must have been a pretty hefty bit of storm damage .

Worldwide the insurance industry has lost US$56,000 million in the past two years from storm damage alone.

At the time we were rushing from job to job repairing storm damage , and fortunately were both wearing rubber soled boots.

Repair of storm damage , foreign debt repayments and aid to small businesses were to be funded from the 1988 tax surplus.

There is no cover for storm damage to gates, hedges or fences.

A spokesman for President Clinton said assessment teams were studying the storm damage .

tissue

Left to their own devices, these free radicals cause tissue damage .

With tissue damage and necrosis, the cells disintegrate and leak their contents into the blood.

For the physician, it is a demand to identify the objective source of the tissue damage which provoked the subjective awareness.

Others use magnetic resonance imaging, like those used to find tissue damage in humans, to detect explosives.

Supposing the physician can find no tissue damage or that there is an inappropriate relation between objective fact and subjective complaint.

Injury or tissue damage stimulates nerve impulses in specialised sensory fibres. 2.

Is this not proof that the pain felt by normal subjects mirrors the nature, intensity and location of tissue damage ?

The aim is to minimise tissue damage and further movement could do just the opposite!

■ VERB

assess

Forgetting the holidays temporarily, she headed out in her car to assess the damage for herself.

State leaders will be assessing priorities today as damage inspection continues.

Local traders met today to assess the damage .

Mitchell trudged down the hall toward his corner office, detouring into the washroom to assess the damage to his hair.

A spokesman for President Clinton said federal teams were still assessing the damage .

The farmer stood back and scratched under his turban, assessing the damage to my vehicle.

This is, however, the first study that also assesses gastroduodenal damage .

Crandall, manager of the park, was waiting Monday for state officials to arrive to assess damage .

avoid

To avoid further damage to sensitive ecosystems, sulphur and nitrogen oxide emissions must be cut by 90 percent.

To avoid damage in a down market, buy and hold stocks of companies with long records of rising earnings and dividends.

Suggestions that he could avoid the damage by protecting the wheat fields with electric fencing do not impress Mr Berry.

But please hurry up if you want to avoid the nerve damage and deformity that result from long-term exposure to the germ.

They are useful for getting into awkward spaces, avoiding damage to the work around them.

Even a predator as powerful as a tiger wants to avoid risk of damage to itself.

All pipes should be bracketed to avoid accidental damage .

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions on the dilutions and immersion times to avoid damage .

cause

Minor bombing incidents in Buenos Aires and Santiago caused little structural damage and nobody was reported to have been injured.

The amount of radiation that would have been needed to be effective would have caused intolerable brain damage .

Roll for each target to see if you cause damage .

If the project would cause damage , then the developer would have to foot the bill himself.

Threadworms do not usually cause any long term damage .

While the lasers could do the job, they would cause too much damage to the healthy tissue, he said.

But evidence is mounting that Ecstasy can cause permanent brain damage .

Inaccurate information from an uninformed physician can cause untold damage to the best educational program.

cover

Yet another option is to buy a policy which itself covers accidental damage without the need for buying a separate extension.

Homeowners insurance does not cover flood damage .

Theft is excluded but this policy would cover damage caused by attempted theft. 3.

Pipes and drains which are blocked are not accidentally damaged and the cost of clearing the blockage is not covered .

Our marine insurance covers such damage or loss after the first £320.

Ascertain if there is any other insurance in force to cover the loss or damage .

If your Homecover policy covers the damage then the cost of the repairs will be paid when settling the claim.

do

She remains more of a mystery, so a deepening scandal has the potential to do more political damage .

If he perceives your body language wrong, he can do major damage .

What's more, it's not just a build-up of toxic chemicals that can do the damage .

It does moral damage by encouraging prejudice within children regardless of their color.

Plus their hands are simply too tiny to ball into fists that will do any real damage .

It would have taken only three or four weeks for the hungry larvae to do this damage , he said.

Organization replaces individual authority; no individual is powerful enough to do much damage .

And if you try and get up now, you will do yourself damage .

inflict

However, it is possible for other war engines and large monsters to inflict damage on them.

The law increased the penalties for those convicted of inflicting racially motivated damage on a religious building.

Those with a taste for battle choose their weapons and most of them look capable of inflicting real damage .

The articles are designed to inflict damage on Labour, but I doubt that they will.

He's in a position to inflict major damage , and he does.

Against an immobile target, such as a wall, even the early cannon could inflict quite considerable damage .

But Tory rebels still remain confident they can win the day and in doing so inflict irreparable damage on the treaty.

Most horses panic, and then they can inflict terrible damage upon themselves.

inflicted

This time Dennis claimed hits on a destroyer while Osborne inflicted damage on a supply ship.

Adam Gilchrist had inflicted much of the damage .

On this occasion City accepted with relish the chances which came their way and inflicted serious psychological damage on their dejected opponents.

They were already well within the shield zone and, had the barge been hostile, it could have inflicted untold damage .

inspect

But neither the princess nor the police driver got out to inspect the damage .

Thursday, on the Morning After, we went to the New Garden to inspect the damage .

She picked up her suitcase and made her way along the aisle, pausing to inspect the damage to her legs.

Loi, when he came to inspect the damage , was confident.

The five then went into Meehan's flat to inspect the damage .

I head for the cove to inspect the damage .

I pulled on oilskins, clambered forward, and inspected the damage by the light of a hand torch.

The Multnomah County Courthouse was evacuated and employees were gathered in a park across the street while officials inspected for damage .

limit

Effective cell-mediated immunity is central to limiting viral damage .

Gingrich and the group were discussing how to limit the political damage Gingrich would face for admitting to having broken House rules.

All of them at least as concerned to limit the damage as to assist the inquiry.

Rex raised the alarm, and the entire crew rushed forward in the rain and darkness to try to limit the damage .

Efforts must be made to limit damage when things go wrong in the classroom.

Although bank officials are seeking to limit the damage , the news will add to pressure for further cuts in borrowing costs.

The object of their game was to limit the damage .

After his return in 1471 Edward tried to limit the damage to the Stanleys by modifying Gloucester's grant.

prevent

The lighting of the galleries has also been transformed and computer controlled blinds fitted to prevent damage from excessive levels of daylight.

Eggs are packed in cartons with the large end uppermost to prevent mechanical damage to the egg.

In order to prevent damage to a lawn, they can be trained to use a flowerbed.

The usual preparation with Lugol may not prevent thyroid damage by I-MIBG.

Within the home environment too, training is important to prevent damage to furniture and soiling of carpets, for example.

Avoid an east-facing situation to prevent frost damage and cut back long growth immediately after flowering.

It goes without saying that you should practise safe upgrading by observing all precautions to prevent damage by static electricity.

Early diagnosis and treatment prevents brain damage and liver cirrhosis.

reduce

The plan is intended to protect the environment and reduce damage from natural disasters.

Heating oil is highly toxic in the short term, but it evaporates quickly, reducing the long-term damage .

They have bevelled edges to reduce on-site damage and make it easier to work with.

The new design should be a better fit, and so reduce the damage to the bone after an implant.

Food is shared to reduce risks of damage in fighting and to prevent interference with eating.

Poisoning rats with warfarin reduces the damage but is costly and possibly damaging to the environment.

Careful handling is necessary to reduce mechanical damage .

repair

And it is costing the company another £16 million to repair the damage to the 1,000 kiosks plundered.

Now he was scheduled to undergo a second surgery the next day to repair nerve and disc damage in his spine.

This continues, but at least now efforts are also being made to prevent further pollution and even repair some of the damage .

When the trade deadline passed last week, Krause did nothing, again, to repair the damage he chose.

But he is determined to repair the damage when he and wife Cherie meet Mr Bush tonight.

He wanted to repair the damage done to him and his family.

But part of her did want to repair some of the damage they had done to each other.

He can not repair the damage he will not acknowledge.

result

Under these circumstances, the chain may cause bruising, and can even result in damage to the nerves unless adjusted.

This caused a violent explosion resulting in extensive damage .

Healing with a launch failure A failure very close to the ground frequently results in damage .

There is some evidence that low salinities induced by freshwater may result in physiological damage to corals.

This pinpointed the main problem ara - non-asbestos work resulting in damage to asbestos-containing insulation material.

They maintained that David's death had resulted from damage done by forceps before his birth.

According to Moscow radio reports there followed a renewed rampage by rioters through the city resulting in extensive damage .

This can then encourage rot to grow on timber, and may also result in frost damage to masonry in cold weather.

suffer

She suffered serious brain damage and was retired from her job on medical grounds.

He suffered ligament damage in his hand two weeks ago in Palm Springs that required cortisone shots.

Rouen Cathedral suffered serious war-time damage in 1944, but is now largely restored.

Even if you suffer permanent damage but are still able to work, this is the only way around it.

Either Alice or Bert could bring such a claim if they suffered damage .

Two other fire trucks suffered heat damage , while three other vehicles experienced minor harm.

Furthermore, other ecosystems have suffered greater damage than the Amazon.

Each released two bombs that would be slowed by fins so the bomber could make its escape without suffering any damage .

sustain

The basement of the house had sustained heavy damage and part of the ceiling on the top floor had collapsed.

The medieval tower of the town hall of Foligno, near Assisi, also sustained further damage .

If chargers move through Fanatics they have not already encountered then they sustain more damage as they hit the deranged Goblins.

Squash and green beans sustained the worst damage , with 50 percent 70 percent, respectively, of these crops lost.

His home sustained some damage , but mostly remained intact.

Though still standing, the basilica itself has sustained terrible damage .

As for the Tirpitz, her crew received a considerable scare but the ship itself sustained no damage .

Both ships sustained major damage , but no one was injured or killed.

undo

You have a chance maybe to undo some of the damage that man has caused our family.

Maybe there was still time to undo the damage ?

She had to see Ratchette and try and undo some of the damage that had been done there.

We certainly can not undo the damage of a lifetime in only thirty days, Sam.

But it is not too late to undo that damage .

Cotton, with an assist from this public-spirited pillar, has done his best to undo the damage caused by the hogwash.

There wasn't any way Evelyn could undo the damage .

It would be a cruel hoax because City would not be able to undo the damage these young people had suffered.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

collateral damage

It could also be that collateral damage from a program crash has changed the setting.

Our helplessness, outrage and fear were not collateral damage.

This collateral damage to otherwise healthy bits of tooth may in the end have to be dealt with itself.

wilful damage/disobedience/exaggeration etc

He then smashed up his cell and began his detention with a three month sentence for assault and wilful damage.

Unbelievably, they were later fined for, respectively, wilful damage and assault, and obstructing the police.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Acid rain has caused serious damage to the pine forests of northern Europe.

It will take many years to repair the damage caused by the floods.

Never look straight at the sun. Any damage to the retina could cause permanent blindness.

New ways of reducing the damage to the environment are urgently needed.

Rubella is a serious infection, which can cause severe physical damage to the unborn child.

The vandals did over £20.000 worth of damage .

There is growing evidence of lasting psychological damage to children in broken families.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Advice on any legal problem which arises in connection with the journey or holiday or with damage to your home.

Boeing Field in south Seattle also was closed, by damage to the runway, Sims said.

Endothelin induced gastric mucosal damage was carried out as described below.

Gary Locke estimated losses totaling billions of dollars, as damage reports of highways, homes and businesses continued to trickle in.

If you have an existing bedframe, always ask for advice, as the wrong combination may cause damage to the mattress.

In truth Gene probably believes that the forces of darkness are gathering, but he also believes in damage limitation.

Mr Galston complains, and evidence of the damage is becoming clearer and clearer.

The Multnomah County Courthouse was evacuated and employees were gathered in a park across the street while officials inspected for damage .

II. verb

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADVERB

also

This same dithering had also damaged Cleo irrevocably.

But they can also damage you the most in times of conflict.

Economic problems also damaged the administration's standing with conservative Republicans.

Cadmium is a carcinogen that can also damage the kidneys.

The buyers were awarded damages assessed at 5s. per quarter and also damages which the buyers had to pay to their sub-buyer.

Alleged inconsistencies in the transport ministry, according to analysts, also damage confidence.

A police car was also damaged during the incident, Warrington Crown Court was told.

Overheating the attic can also damage the roofing shingles.

badly

Like other urban institutions, the zoo was badly damaged in the factional fighting of the early 1990s.

Obviously if the group is small, its chances of success may be badly damaged by one individual not joining.

Her own iron prow and cutwater were carried away, and she was otherwise badly damaged about the stern by the collision.

The Millar Memorial, however, suffered a setback recently when a fire badly damaged their band hall.

The car was badly damaged and one man was lying in a ditch.

A bedroom was badly damaged in the blaze, but arson is not suspected.

Read in studio Fire has badly damaged an office block in Gloucester.

extensively

The vehicles involved a Vauxhall Cavalier and a Ford Orion were extensively damaged .

Dozens of homes, a church, primary school and shops were also extensively damaged .

Mr Rowbotham's Ford Escort car was extensively damaged .

The 17-year-old suffered only minor injuries despite the Vauxhall Cavalier car being extensively damaged .

Firemen wearing breathing apparatus fought the blaze which extensively damaged the house.

The 20m by 10m barn was extensively damaged .

Two firemen wearing breathing apparatus managed to confine the fire to the living room, which was extensively damaged .

further

Further damage to preparations caused by local heating includes blistering of thin section bonding resins and even cracking of the glass slide.

Not only would that further damage his image for posterity.

Efforts by the government and the judiciary to combat the cartels had been further damaged by two recent incidents.

The plane was further damaged the next day when it tried to take off on three engines instead of the usual four.

But there were fears that Manchester's chances of staging the games in the year 2000 have been further damaged .

This is needless and removes stones and rocks from their natural location and further damages the environment.

The widespread destruction and looting carried out by the soldiers further damaged the image of the new government.

And Mr Bush's economic advisers fear that any extra regulation could further damage an already weak economy.

most

It is this last point which is perhaps the most damaging .

His right arm and leg were the most damaged .

It is the big money from the millionaires that is most damaging .

It appears to be most damaging to rapidly growing organs in the body, Etzel said.

Most damaging of all, some scientists fell into this very trap.

potentially

These lenses are much smaller than ours, so less potentially damaging light reaches the sensory cells.

The effects of comet and asteroid impacts are potentially damaging to life in general, and to human civilization in particular.

Punitive damages potentially could be much more costly to cigarette companies than compensatory damages.

seriously

However, the decline in the Tokyo stock market, which has rendered many warrants worthless, may seriously damage the market.

Neither Bradley nor his school have been seriously damaged by his small act of information sharing.

Girls like their men to look tough-but with every sign of being quite seriously damaged .

The quake seriously damaged computers at the U.S.

If that was now imposed on it, it would very seriously damage its business.

In two days we had had forty-five ships seriously damaged in our slick battalions.

Buildings were destroyed and many others, the Uffizi gallery among them, were seriously damaged .

But she did it so skillfully that again neither she nor her plane was seriously damaged .

severely

The Amerada Hess Corporation oil refinery, with a capacity of 545,000 barrels per day, was also severely damaged .

A severely damaged Royal Navy destroyer burns through the day with exploding ordnance and great sudden flares of burning bunker oil.

Next door the Northern Bank was severely damaged with window frames jutting out of the cracked masonry.

We have a flood control system that is severely damaged .

The front room was severely damaged and no one was injured in the incident.

Twin quakes on Sept. 26 killed 10 people and severely damaged the basilica in Assisi.

Its credibility has been severely damaged and its attempts to find a solution to the problem have resulted in abject failure.

One day a car was brought in that had been severely damaged in an accident.

■ NOUN

brain

By examining you, we can find to what extent your brain was damaged - if it was your brain.

My brain damaged Can you come to me?

Only 10% of children born with spina bifida are brain damaged .

In Mashpee, two parents were indicted on charges of abuse that left their baby boy blind and brain damaged .

However, that part of his brain may have been damaged and unable to give an accurate reading.

Sometimes paralysis occurs, but it all depends on what brain region was damaged .

In contrast, it is remarkable how little change in function there usually is when the brain is damaged .

Affected babies are small, deformed and brain damaged .

building

Huge tidal waves swamped the town, damaging almost half the buildings .

It can never achieve anything but slowing people's journeys and damaging a few buildings .

A rise in soil salinity in coastal areas is also expected to damage buildings , as are increased storms and gales.

business

The move was intended to prove that co-operation could damage business .

The courthouse bomb shattered 22 windows Thursday and blew out a chunk of wall while damaging four businesses on the surrounding block.

If that was now imposed on it, it would very seriously damage its business .

Cultural isolation may be damaging to the business sector of one nation.

Companies A company may sue for defamation, but only in respect of statements which damage its business reputation.

Any level of drinking that adversely affects some one's work performance is likely to damage your business .

Do they damage the business of government by inhibiting confidentiality and honest private discussion?

car

Garage blaze: Most of a garage was damaged after a car caught fire at a house in Durham Road, Stockton.

Police stepped up patrols along the freeway after the shooting Monday morning, which damaged a car but caused no injuries.

One was against a civil guard barracks in San Sebastian, which damaged several parked cars .

They were chased away in their damaged car , having been told not to come back or they would be killed.

The 17-year-old suffered only minor injuries despite the Vauxhall Cavalier car being extensively damaged .

You're suggesting that I damaged your car deliberately.

A crash during practice shook him up and badly damaged his car .

career

Being innovative can damage your career .

Because they were afraid of damaging their careers .

The affair had to be kept secret, or the scandal within the hospital would irrevocably damage his career .

Becoming a martyr in most business environments is a good way to damage your career progress permanently.

It did not want to undermine trust or uncover extraneous information that might damage agents' careers .

Mr. Hunt I withdraw the commendation that I gave the hon. Gentleman, but only because that is damaging his political career .

cause

Whereabouts in the model would damage cause a patient to have to rely on the non-lexical procedure for reading?

Too often over-involved people burn out without realizing it and end up damaging their cause and themselves.

They are the fat, and it would have damaged his cause even to admit their existence.

The consequent adverse publicity was widely held to be damaging to the Labour cause .

cell

These in turn can destabilize living organisms, damaging their cell structure.

Two hot areas: products for dieters and antioxidants, which are thought to neutralize so-called free radicals that can damage cells .

Such levels can damage developing tooth cells and produce dental fluorosis.

The damaged parenchymal cells lose their ability to either conjugate bilirubin or to transport the bilirubin that is conjugated into the bile.

Nitrogen mustards in suitable doses damage only cells and tissues which normally exhibit relatively high rates of proliferation and growth.

This is caused by the leakage of conjugated bilirubin from damaged parenchymal cells into the sinusoids.

She mutilated herself, damaged her cell , showed violence towards staff and set fire to her bedding.

Advocates say that large doses of antioxidants protect against cancer by soaking up dangerous oxygen molecules that can damage cells .

confidence

The general economic uncertainties, and particularly high unemployment damaged the confidence of prospective house buyers.

Alleged inconsistencies in the transport ministry, according to analysts, also damage confidence .

credibility

At the same time, two financial scandals have damaged the government's credibility .

But that would damage the credibility of the government further and certainly affect the financial markets, analysts said.

economy

In the long run, persistent current account deficits are difficult and costly to sustain and are damaging to an economy .

It builds in and reinforces their dominance, but it damages the weaker economies .

The general election was called only after months of on-again, off-again dithering which damaged our economy and weakened our democracy.

And Mr Bush's economic advisers fear that any extra regulation could further damage an already weak economy .

Both ministries are acutely aware that Britain is suffering from skills shortages that could damage the economy and hold back business.

environment

Control has often centred on powerful organochlorine pesticides, which kill the locusts but can then damage the environment .

Finally, Galvin points out that when we damage our environment , we damage our future.

Organic farms can be as productive as industrial farming and do not damage the environment .

I suspect we may have permanently damaged the soils environment .

We are, each of us, personally responsible for damaging our environment .

This does not stop motorists damaging the environment but only stops them destroying it quite so violently.

Clearly, this type of consumption will severely damage the environment .

All of this stresses the need to ensure that future development must enhance rather than damage the environment .

fire

If business premises suffer serious fire damage the landlord usually covenants to reinstate the premises with all convenient speed.

The fire department estimates that damage at 50 Congress St. is about $ 500, 000, Caron said.

He did not do so and the fire spread and damaged the plaintiff's property.

Inside, some oil was set on fire and equipment damaged , prompting an argument about nonviolence.

The Millar Memorial, however, suffered a setback recently when a fire badly damaged their band hall.

Read in studio Fire has damaged a disused hotel at Abingdon in Oxfordshire.

Read in studio Fire has badly damaged an office block in Gloucester.

Some fires last summer damaged signalling cables.

flood

The chapel was again damaged by flood in 1956 and restored in 1957.

What there is instead is a deep sense of sympathy with those who have been damaged by the flood .

goods

We all pass through this life as damaged goods , and the repair work is ongoing.

health

Still to come ... can the new craze for step aerobics actually damage your health ?

Inside the body, the virus is powerful and can be extremely damaging to human health .

Avoid poisons Every day there is another scare about some product damaging our health .

The blocking of natural functions can damage our health .

It is a state of unease of the mind, and in the horse damages both its health and behaviour.

Living can damage your health , he wrote.

Similarly, workfare might expose people to the stigma and frequent humiliations that are damaging to health .

home

Tumbling trees and limbs also damaged homes throughout the region.

It demolished a pub and damaged fourteen homes where families were sleeping.

In Silverado Canyon, clogged streams can mean damaged homes and flooded roads.

house

Firemen wearing breathing apparatus fought the blaze which extensively damaged the house .

The water damaged the plaintiff's house and caused it to be left empty.

Bomb wrecks Ulster hotel A bomb has wrecked a hotel in Ulster and damage neighbouring houses .

It destroyed or damaged around 410,000 houses , leaving an estimated 1,200,000 people homeless.

image

It was widely agreed that the episode had damaged the public image of Congress and had discredited the confirmation process.

Not only would that further damage his image for posterity.

Mr Scott added that all the media attention since May had undoubtedly damaged the good image of the club.

The manoeuvring has greatly damaged his image as a leader capable of making hard decisions.

The widespread destruction and looting carried out by the soldiers further damaged the image of the new government.

But his tenure of the prime minister's press office lowered its reputation and damaged Mrs Thatcher's image .

ligament

He damaged ankle ligaments in the defeat at Chesterfield last Saturday and will be out for about three weeks.

Ince needed long treatment and it was later discovered he had damaged ankle ligaments .

The former Great Britain amateur skipper has damaged knee ligaments .

million

The civil suit, which had sought $ 10 million in damages , ended in an undisclosed settlement on Tuesday, however.

The accidents, which involved streetcars and cable cars, caused $ 3. 6 million in damages and injured 10 people.

The Blumenfelds are seeking $ 4. 8 million in damages plus interest going back to 1992.

C., jury awarding Food Lion $ 5. 5 million in damages for fraud and trespassing.

punitive

The punitive damages that we awarded is a deterrent for other murders, not just Mr Simpson.

The trio seeks $ 25 million in damages , plus unspecified punitive damages.

relationship

Nearly all think that their working habits damage relationships with their spouse, their children and harm their health.

It is difficult to make progress in your career if you leave a trail of damaged relationships behind you.

The proliferation of staff has also damaged collegial relationships in Congress.

Despite the points listed above, many capable employees fail to see how they are damaging relationships all around them.

Moreover, such a challenge is likely to damage the trading relationship between the client and the customer concerned.

Longer-term solutions would include restoring the damaged relationships within the unit so that there is a return to normal working conditions.

Restoring a damaged relationship with a superior Your most important working relationship is with your immediate superior.

repair

On November 30, 1951, B 30A A73-39 was damaged beyond repair when it overshot the runway at Changi.

The pilot suffered only minor injuries but the aircraft was damaged beyond economical repair .

reputation

But stinting excessively would probably damage his reputation more than overspending.

The Democrats had argued that the embarrassment of a shuttered government was damaging the reputation of the House.

One must avoid publicity or anything that could damage the reputation of the hotel.

You think you can damage my reputation by repeating the fantasies of some neurotic schoolteacher?

He said the cancellation of the all-night concert damaged his reputation and would cost him future business.

Companies A company may sue for defamation, but only in respect of statements which damage its business reputation .

It can only be activated when a false statement actually damages a reputation .

system

Well her being human, she thought it might damage our digestive system .

Now they know a two-pronged approach is needed: blocking the virus and rebuilding the damaged immune system .

The stronger argument is a functional one, that brains do not respond to damage like typical interactive systems .

Frehley appears to shoot rockets from his guitar that damage the sound system .

My social worker says that I shouldn't be gettin' high, because it damages the immune system .

Hormonally active synthetic chemicals can damage the reproductive system , alter the nervous system and brain, and impair the immune system.

There is evidence that they damage the immune system and cause cancer in animals; the effects on humans are disputed.

■ VERB

claim

They claimed the bumps could damage their vehicles.

It supports the Internal Revenue Service, which has claimed in court that damage awards for non-physical injuries should be taxable.

lose

Should it be lost or damaged , it can be regenerated quickly.

A number of circumstances in which a transparency could be lost or damaged would be quite beyond the control of the borrower.

On a flotilla holiday you may accidentally lose equipment or damage the yacht.

If your parcel is lost or damaged , compensation may be paid up the specified limit according to the fee paid.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

collateral damage

It could also be that collateral damage from a program crash has changed the setting.

Our helplessness, outrage and fear were not collateral damage.

This collateral damage to otherwise healthy bits of tooth may in the end have to be dealt with itself.

damaged goods

If there was actual combustion of the damaged goods , however caused, there has been damage by fire.

On 5 September a credit note No. 19 was received from A. Creditor in respect of damaged goods valued £5.00 returned by the hotel.

She didn't, but something about the way she moved confirmed my suspicion that she saw herself as damaged goods .

We all pass through this life as damaged goods , and the repair work is ongoing.

wilful damage/disobedience/exaggeration etc

He then smashed up his cell and began his detention with a three month sentence for assault and wilful damage.

Unbelievably, they were later fined for, respectively, wilful damage and assault, and obstructing the police.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Don't put any hot things on the table - you'll damage the surface.

He slipped on some ice and damaged ligaments in his knee.

Lewis damaged his knee in training and will not appear in the game.

Several recent events have damaged the government's public image.

Smoking can seriously damage your health.

The building had been severely damaged by fire.

The company's future prospects will be badly damaged if this deal falls through.

The crisis has badly damaged the president's authority.

The goods were damaged during transport.

The storm damaged hundreds of houses.

This is likely to damage Scott's reputation even more.

When carrying out the operation, doctors have to take great care not to damage the delicate nerves endings.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Both sexes will be damaged by the continuous disciplining that the rebellious and unsuccessful boys require.

Huge tidal waves swamped the town, damaging almost half the buildings.

It damages the nerves in the hands, feet or eyes.

Read in studio Fire has badly damaged an office block in Gloucester.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.