history of Western architecture from prehistoric Mediterranean cultures to the 20th century. Architecture, the art of building, is perhaps the best example of the partnership and basic identity of a fine and a useful art, beauty and utility, form and function. A buildingwhether a temple, church, factory, office complex, exhibition hall, or domestic dwellingmust demonstrate the solution of the practical problems associated with its purpose. In addition, the building must show the careful manipulation of structural and ornamental materials, used to express aesthetic, cultural, or symbolic ideas. The primary concern of the architect is the definition and articulation of exterior space and the spanning and enclosure of interior space. The moment a square or circle has been described on the ground, one area has been physically and intellectually separated from another and the architectural process has begun. As the architect spans the spaceon the ground as with a wall or road or in the air as with an arch or bridgehe encounters not only the complex technical problems of the craft but aesthetic factors as well. Materials must be molded with an eye for the proportions of masses and voids; for the interaction of qualities, textures, colours, and capacities of these materials; for the harmonious relationship of open windows and doors to closed wall space; for the control and flow of lighting; and above all for architecture in actionthat is, for the shelter, comfort, and movement of the people who will be living, working, and carrying on their various activities within the building. The history of architecture may be read in the progressive changes in the solution of structural problems. The transition from the most primitive shed roof and simple truss construction to the vertical posts, or columns, supporting horizontal beams, or lintels, covers the period from the beginning of civilization through ancient Greek culture. Greek architecture also formalized many structural and decorative elements into three of the classical ordersIonic, Doric, and Corinthianwhich, to a greater or lesser extent, have influenced architectural style since that time. The Romans exploited the arch, vault, and dome and made broader use of the load-bearing masonry wall; and in the late medieval period the pointed arch, ribbing, and pier systems gradually emerged. At this point all the problems of brick and stone masonry construction had been solved, and little innovation except in decoration was achieved until the Industrial Revolution. Not until the 19th century, with the advent of cast-iron and steel construction, did a new architectural age dawn and higher, broader, and lighter buildings become possible. With the advances of 20th century technology, new structural methods such as cantilevering received more extensive use. Building materials evolved in much the same way from simple, often perishable materials such as primitive grass thatch, stick frame, and wattle and daub to more durable materials such as clay, adobe, brick, stone, and cement. The modern use of reinforced and pre-stressed ferroconcrete and of various metals, including steel, copper, and aluminum, as well as of glass and structural fabrics and plastics, has led not only to more daring structural innovations but also to much beauty through the realization of the inherent qualities of such materials and their use in novel decorative schemes. In postmodern architecture the classical orders have been reintroduced as one of a number of contrasting design methods, so that late 20th-century architecture attempted to include historical references in its design approach and was characterized by a new aesthetic pluralism. William Fleming David John Watkin The Editors of the Encyclopdia Britannica 20th-century architecture The modern movement Before World War II Europe The Modern movement was an attempt to create a nonhistorical architecture of functionalism in which a new sense of space would be created with the help of modern materials. A reaction against the stylistic pluralism of the 19th century, the Modern movement was also coloured by the belief that the 20th century had given birth to modern man, who would need a radically new kind of architecture. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos opposed the use of any ornament at all and designed purist compositions of bald, functional blocks such as the Steiner House at Vienna (1910), one of the first private houses of reinforced concrete. Peter Behrens, having had contact with Olbrich at Darmstadt and with Hoffmann at Vienna, was in 1907 appointed artistic adviser in charge of the AEG (Allgemeine Elektricitts Gesellschaft), for which he designed a turbine factory (1909) at Berlin. Behrens strongly affected three great architects who worked in his office: Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. In Germany, Gropius followed a mechanistic direction. His Fagus Works factory at Alfeld-an-der-Leine in Germany (1911) and the Werkbund exposition building at the Cologne exhibition (1914) had been models of industrial architecture in which vigorous forms were enclosed by masonry and glass; the effect of these buildings was gained by the use of steel frames, strong silhouette, and the logic of their plans. There were no historical influences or expressions of local landscape, traditions, or materials. The beauty of the buildings derived from adapting form to a technological culture. Gropius succeeded van de Velde as director of the ducal Arts and Crafts School at Weimar in 1919. Later called the Bauhaus, it became the most important centre of modern design until the Nazis closed it in 1933. While he was at Weimar, Gropius developed a firm philosophy about architecture and education, which he announced in 1923. The aim of the visual arts, he said, is to create a complete, homogeneous physical environment in which all the arts have their place. Architects, sculptors, furniture makers, and painters must learn practical crafts and obtain knowledge of tools, materials, and forms; they must become acquainted with the machine and attempt to use it in solving the social problems of an industrial society. At the Bauhaus, aesthetic investigations into space, colour, construction, and elementary forms were flavoured by Cubism and Constructivism. Moving the school to Dessau in 1925, Gropius designed the pioneering new Bauhaus (192526) in which steel frames and glass walls provided workshops within severely Cubistic buildings. Gropius assembled a staff of modern teachers, including the artists Lszl Moholy-Nagy, Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Marcel Breuer, and Adolf Meyer, whose projects, such as the 116 experimental standardized housing units of the Trten Estate at Dessau, Ger. (192628), bore a highly machined, depersonalized appearance. In France, Tony Garnier caught the modern currents in materials, structure, and composition when he evolved his masterful plan for a Cit industrielle (190104), published in 1917, in which reinforced concrete was to be used to create a modern city of modern buildings. With insight, Garnier developed a comprehensive scheme for residential neighbourhoods, transportation terminals, schools, and industrial centres, and his plan became a major influential scheme for 20th-century urban design. Garnier received no mandate to build such a city, but his town hall at Boulogne-Billancourt (193134) recalled the promise he had shown, though it was not so innovative and masterful as might have been expected. The Futurist movement counted among its members another early 20th-century urban planner, the Italian architect Antonio Sant'Elia. Influenced by American industrial cities and the Viennese architects Wagner and Loos, he designed a grandiose futuristic city, entitled Citt nuova (New City), the drawings for which were exhibited at Milan in 1914. He conceived of the city as a symbol of the new technological age. It was an affirmative environment for the future, however, in opposition to the negating inhuman Expressionistic city of the future conceived by Fritz Lang in the 1926 film classic Metropolis. Centred in Germany between 1910 and 1925, Expressionist architects, like the painters who were part of the Brcke and Blaue Reiter groups, sought peculiarly personal and often bizarre visual forms and effects. Among the earliest manifestations of an Expressionistic building style were the highly individual early works of Hans Poelzig, such as the Luban Chemical Factory (191112) and the municipal water tower (1911) of Posen, Ger. (now Poznan, Pol.), which led to his monumental, visionary space caves, such as the project for the Salzburg Festival Theatre (192021) and the Grosses Schauspielhaus, built in Berlin (1919) for Max Reinhardt's Expressionistic theatre. These later works by Poelzig show the influence of the structural audacity of Max Berg's Centenary Hall at Breslau, Ger. (now Wroclaw, Pol.; 191213), with its gigantic reinforced concrete dome measuring 213 feet in diameter. The second generation of Expressionists centred their activities in postwar Germany and The Netherlands. Distinctly personal architectural statements were given form in such dynamically sculptured structures as the Einstein Observatory in Potsdam (1920), by Erich Mendelsohn; the anthroposophically based design by Rudolf Steiner for the Goetheanum in Dornach, Switz. (192528); the Eigen Haard Estates (housing development) at Amsterdam (1921), by Michel de Klerk; and Fritz Hger's (18771949) Chilehaus office building in Hamburg (192223), with its imperative thrust of mass and acute angularity. As Germany was the centre of Expressionism, Paris was the stronghold of the advocates of a new vision of space, Cubism, which Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso developed in 1906. Forms were dismembered into their faceted components; angular forms, interpenetrated planes, transparencies, and diverse impressions were recorded as though seen simultaneously. Soon architectural reflections of the Cubist aesthetic appeared internationally. Interior spaces were defined by thin, discontinuous planes and glass walls; supports were reduced to slender metal columns, machine-finished and without ornamentation; and Cubistic voids and masses were arranged programmatically in asymmetric compositions. The Dutch de Stijl movement was influenced by Cubism, although it sought a greater abstract purity in its geometric formalism. Organized in Leiden in 1917, the painters Piet Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg and the architects Jacobus Johannes Oud and Gerrit Thomas Rietveld were counted among its members. Their Neoplastic aesthetic advocated severe precision of line and shape, austerely pristine surfaces, a Spartan economy of form, and purity of colour. Rietveld's Schroeder House, built in 1924 at Utrecht, was a three-dimensional parallel to Mondrian's paintings of the period. Van Doesburg's work for the Bauhaus art school at Weimar brought the influence of Dutch Neoplasticism to bear upon Gropius and Mies, whose plans for houses at times markedly resembled van Doesburg's paintings. Meanwhile Oud collaborated with van Doesburg for a time and vigorously proclaimed the new style in housing developments he built at Rotterdam (after 1918), Hook of Holland (192427), and Stuttgart, Ger. (1927). Cubism and the related movements of Futurism, Constructivism, Suprematism, and Neoplasticism, like any artistic styles, might have faltered and fallen into a merely decorative clich, as at the Paris Exposition of 1925, but for Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, and Le Corbusier. Gropius was succeeded at the Bauhaus in 1930 by Mies van der Rohe, whose training as a mason was supplemented by the engineering experience he had gained from 1908 to 1911 in the office of Behrens; both of these elements of his education were synthesized in his project for the Krller House in The Hague (1912). Influenced by van Doesburg's de Stijl, Mies's natural elegance and precise orderliness soon revealed themselves in unrealized projects for a brick country house, a steel and glass skyscraper, and a glazed, cantilevered concrete-slab office building (192022). He directed the Weissenhof estate project of the Werkbund Exposition at Stuttgart (1927), contributing the design for an apartment house. Such practical problems failed to show his talent, which was not fully known until he designed the German pavilion for the International Exposition at Barcelona in 1929. The continuous spaces partitioned with thin marble planes and the chromed steel columns drew international applause. His Tugendhat House at Brno, Czech Republic (1930), along with Le Corbusier's Savoye House, epitomized the Modern domestic setting at its best. The Swiss-French architect Charles-douard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier, gave the new architecture, sometimes referred to as the International Style, a firm foundation by writing the strong theoretical statement, Vers une architecture (Towards a New Architecture), published in 1923. It revealed a world of new formsnot classical capitals and Gothic arches but ships, turbines, grain elevators, airplanes, and machine products, which Le Corbusier said were indexes to 20th-century imagination. His love of machines was combined with a belief in communal authority as the best means of accomplishing social reforms, and Le Corbusier directed his attention toward the problems of housing and urban patterns. An architectural attack, using standardized building components and mass production, was required. His sociological and formal ideas appeared in a Cubist project for Domino housing (1916), and his aesthetic preferences led him to develop an extreme version of Cubist painting that he and the painter Amede Ozenfant called Purism. Returning to architecture in 1921, he designed a villa at Vaucresson, Fr. (1922), the abstract planes and strip windows of which revealed his desire to arrive at the house machinethat is, standardized houses with standardized furniture. In 1922 he also brought forth his project for a skyscraper city of 3,000,000 people, in which tall office and apartment buildings would stand in broad open plazas and parks with the Cubist spaces between them defined by low row housing. Much of his work thereafterhis Voisin city plan, his Pavilion of the New Spirit at the Paris Exposition of 1925, his exhibit of workers' apartments at the Werkbund Exposition at Stuttgart (1927), and his influential but unexecuted submittal to the League of Nations competitionwas a footnote to that dream of a new city. The villa, Les Terrasses, at Garches, Fr. (1927), was a lively play of spatial parallelepipeds (six-sided solid geometric forms the faces of which are parallelograms) ruled by horizontal planes, but his style seemed to culminate in the most famous of his houses, the Savoye House at Poissy, Fr. (192930). The building's principal block was raised one story above the ground on pilotis (heavy reinforced-concrete columns); floors were cantilevered to permit long strip windows; and space was molded plastically and made to flow horizontally, vertically, and diagonally until, on the topmost terrace, the whole composition ended in a cadenza of rounded, terminating spaces. Gaining greater facility in manipulating flowing spaces, Le Corbusier designed the dormitory for Swiss students at the Cit Universitaire (193132) in Paris. In the period after the Revolution the erstwhile Soviet Union at first encouraged modern art, and several architects, notably the German Bruno Taut, looked to the new government for a sociological program. The Constructivist project for a monument to the Third International (1920) by Vladimir Tatlin was a machine in which the various sections (comprising legislative houses and offices) would rotate within an exposed steel armature. A workers' club in Moscow (1929) had a plan resembling half a gear, and the Ministry of Central Economic Planning (192832), designed by Le Corbusier, was intended to be a glass-filled slab but, because of Stalin's dislike of modern architecture, was never completed. Its foundation later was used for an outdoor swimming pool. Modern European styles of architecture were subjected to official disfavour in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, as Stalin's government adopted classical monumentssuch as Boris Mikhaylovich Iofan's winning design for the Palace of the Soviets (1931), which was intended to pile classical colonnades to a height of 1,365 feet and have a colossal statue of Lenin at its summit. With its gigantic Corinthian columns, the building for the Central Committee of the Communist Party at Kiev (1937) showed an overbearing scale. After 1930 the Modern movement spread through Europe. In Switzerland Robert Maillart's experiments with reinforced concrete attained great grace in his Salginatobel Bridge (1930). Finland's Alvar Aalto won a competition for the Municipal Library at Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) in 1927 with a building of glass walls, flat roof, and round skylights (completed 1935; destroyed 1943); but he retained the traditional Scandinavian sympathy for wood and picturesque planning that were evident in his Villa Mairea at Noormarkku (193839), the factory and housing at Sunila (193639, completed 195154), and his later civic centre at Syntsalo (195052). Aalto and other Scandinavians gained a following among those repelled by severe German modernism. Sweden's Erik Gunnar Asplund and Denmark's Kay Fisker, Christian Frederick Mller, and Arne Jacobsen also brought regional character into their modern work. In The Netherlands, Johannes Andreas Brinkman and Lodewijk Cornelis van der Vlugt, at the Van Nelle Tobacco Factory in Rotterdam (192930), aimed at more mechanistic, universal form. In England, refugees from Germany and other countries, alone or with English designers, inaugurated a radical modernismfor example, the apartment block known as Highpoint I, Highgate, London (by Berthold Lubetkin and the Tecton group, 1935). The United States The locus for creative architecture in the United States remained the Middle West, although Californians such as the brothers Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene struck occasional regional and modern notes, as in the Gamble House at Pasadena, Calif. (190809). The second generation of architects of the Chicago school, such as William G. Purcell, G.G. Elmslie, and William Drummond, disseminated Middle Western modern architecture throughout the United States. Figure 25: Robie House, Chicago, by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1909. The greatest of all these new Chicago architects was Frank Lloyd Wright. His prairie architecture expressed its site, region, structure, and materials and avoided all historical reminiscences; beginning with its plan and a distinctive spatial theme, each building burgeoned to its exterior sculptural form. Starting from Richardson's rustic, shingle houses and making free use of Beaux-Arts composition during the 1880s and 1890s, Wright hinted at his prairie house idiom with the Winslow House at River Forest, Ill. (1893), elaborated it in the Coonley House at Riverside, Ill. (1908), and, ultimately, realized it in 1909 in the flowing volumes of space defined by sculptural masses and horizontal planes of his Robie House at Chicago (Figure 25). Meanwhile, he scored a triumph with his administration building for the Larkin Company at Buffalo in 1904 (destroyed 1950), which grouped offices around a central skylighted court, sealed them hermetically against their smoky environs, and offered amenities in circulation, air conditioning, fire protection, and plumbing. In its blocky fire towers, sequences of piers and recessed spandrels were coupled together in a powerful composition. Wright was, however, ignored by all except a select following. The buildings of the single figure who gave international distinction to early 20th-century American architecture remained the cherished property of personal clients, such as Aline Barnsdall, for whom Wright designed the Hollyhock House at Los Angeles (191820). Wright's Autobiography (1943) recorded his frustrations in gaining acceptance for organic architecture. The first edition summarized the chief features of that architecture: the reduction to a minimum in the number of rooms and the definition of them by point supports; the close association of buildings to their sites by means of extended and emphasized planes parallel to the ground; the free flow of space, unencumbered by boxlike enclosures; harmony of all openings with each other and with human scale; the exploitation of the nature of a material, in both its surface manifestations and its structure; the incorporation of mechanical equipment and furniture as organic parts of structure; and the elimination of applied decoration. There were also four new properties: transparency, which was obtained through the use of glass; tenuity, or plasticity of mass achieved through the use of steel in tension, as in reinforced concrete; naturalism, or the expression of materials; and integration, in which all ornamental features were natural by-products of manufacture and assembly. The Millard House at Pasadena, Calif. (1923), exemplified many of these principles; its concrete-block walls were cast with decorative patterns. Taliesin East, Wright's house near Spring Green, Wisc., went through a series of major rebuildings (1911, 1914, 1915, and 1925), and each fitted the site beautifully; local stone, gabled roofs, and outdoor gardens reflected the themes of the countryside. A period of withdrawal at Taliesin afforded Wright several years of intensive reflection, from which he emerged with fabulous drawings for the Doheny ranch in California (1921), a skyscraper for the National Life Insurance Company at Chicago (192025), and St. Mark's Tower, New York City (1929). The last was to have been an 18-story apartment house comprising a concrete stem from which four arms branched outward to form the sidewalls of apartments cantilevered from the stem to an exterior glass wall. Unexecuted like most of Wright's most exciting projects, St. Mark's Tower testified to his revolutionary thinking about skyscraper architecture. His ideas gained a wide hearing in 1931 when he published the Kahn lectures he had delivered at Princeton in 1930. In keeping with the needs of the United States during the Depression, Wright turned his attention to the low-cost house, designing a Usonian house for Herbert Jacobs near Madison, Wisc. (1937), and a quadruple house, the Sun houses, at Ardmore, Pa. (1939). These exemplified the residences he intended for his ideal communities, such as rural, decentralized Broadacre City (1936), which was Wright's answer to European schemes for skyscraper cities. At about the same time, Wright produced four masterpieces: Fallingwater, Bear Run, Pa. (1936), the daringly cantilevered weekend house of Edgar Kaufmann; the administration building of S.C. Johnson & Son, in which brick cylinders and planes develop a series of echoing spaces, culminating in the forest of graceful mushroom columns in the main hall, and the Johnson House (1937), aptly called Wingspread, both at Racine, Wisc.; and Taliesin West at Paradise Valley, near Phoenix, Ariz. (begun 1938), where rough, angular walls and roofs echo the desert valley and surrounding mountains. With increasing sensitivity to local terrain and native forms and materials, Wright stated more complex spatial and structural themes than European modernists, who seldom attempted either extreme programmatic plans or organic adaptation of form to a particular environment. Eventually, Wright himself developed a more universal geometry, as he revealed in the sculptural Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum at New York City (195659). The emblem of business, the office building, continued to suffer from demands for unique, distinctive towers. Harvey Wiley Corbett, a New York architect, admitted that publicity was the ruling motivation. Sometimes a business with nationwide suboffices developed a corporate iconography; Sears, Roebuck and Company, Bell Telephone, Howard Johnson, A & P, and the various gasoline companies were recognizable instantly. The Gothic skyscraper, popularized by Gilbert's Woolworth Building, was the style used by Raymond Hood for his winning entry in the Chicago Tribune competition (1922). Some buildings gained attention through their classical ornament; others were Renaissance palaces. About 1920 some architects developed simple cubical forms, and the stepped ziggurat was popularized by renderers, notably Hugh Ferriss, and such painters as Georgia O'Keeffe, John Marin, and Charles Sheeler. This soaring and jagged form received legal support from the New York City zoning law of 1916 and economic justification from the fact that, in order to obtain rentable, peripheral office space in the upper floors, where the banks of elevators diminished, whole increments of office space had to be omitted. These cubical envelopes were not without ornament at their crests, as in Hood's American Radiator Building in New York City (192425), suitably described as one huge cinder incandescent at the top. Such decoration might be chic, as in New York City's BarclayVesey (telephone company) Building, where Ralph Walker re-created the Art Deco interiors of the Paris Exposition of 1925. In San Francisco, Miller, Pflueger, & Cantin used Chinese ornament to enliven their telephone building (1926). Paradoxically, one archaeological find led to simpler buildings when, about 1930, Mayan pyramids inspired Timothy Pflueger in his work on the 450 Sutter building in San Francisco. Clifflike blocks arose in Chicago, the Daily News and Palmolive buildings (1929) being the best examples; New York City acquired a straightforward expression of tall vertical piers and setback cubical masses in the Daily News Building (1930), by the versatile Hood, who had run the course from Gothic to modern form. The bank and office building of the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society (193132) by George Howe and William Lescaze, a Swiss architect, gave the skyscraper its first thoroughly 20th-century form, and Hood, again, produced a counterpart in New York City, the McGraw-Hill Building (1931). Few of these, including the Empire State Building (1931), did anything to solve urban density and transportation problems; indeed, they intensified them. Rockefeller Center, however, begun in 1929, was, with its space for pedestrians within a complex of slablike skyscrapers, outstanding and too seldom copied. American industry showed some inclination to respect function, materials, and engineering between the world wars, as was evident in Joseph Leland's glazed, skeletal buildings for the Pressed Steel Company at Worcester, Mass. (1930). Occasionally, a traditional architect had produced an innovation, such as Willis Polk's (18671924) Hallidie Building at San Francisco (1918). With the aid of Ernest Wilby, the engineering firm of Albert Kahn created a work of architectural merit in Detroit's Continental Motors Factory (about 1918). The National Cash Register, United States Shoe Company, National Biscuit, Sears, Roebuck and Company and various automobile companies, such as Ford, sponsored Functional architecture. Rockefeller Center indicated that by 1930 there was a move toward simple form, which was presaged by the architecture of the TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority). European modernism gained a firm following in the United States as some of its best practitioners emigrated there. Eliel Saarinen, who won second prize in the Chicago Tribune competition, gained the acclaim of Sullivan and other architects. He settled in Bloomfield Hills, Mich., a Detroit suburb, where he established a school of architecture at the Cranbrook Academy. Saarinen designed its new buildings, gradually freeing himself from historical reminiscences of his native Scandinavia. He remained sensitive to the role of art in architecture, best revealed by his use of the sculpture of the Swede Carl Milles. The Austrian architect Richard Neutra established a practice in California, notable products of which were the Lovell House at Los Angeles (192728) and the Kaufmann Desert House at Palm Springs (194647). A modern architecture exhibit in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City, in 1932, recorded by the architectural historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock and the architect Philip Johnson in the book International Style; Architecture Since 1922, familiarized Americans with the International Style. After 1933, as modernists fled the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy, the United States received Gropius, Breuer, and Mies. Gropius joined the architectural school of Harvard University and established an educational focus recalling the Bauhaus. 20th-century architecture Postmodernism The 1960s saw the rise of dissatisfaction with consequences of the Modern movement, especially in North America, where its failings were exposed in two influential books, Jane Jacobs' The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and Robert Venturi's Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966). Jacobs highlighted the destruction of urban coherence wrought by the utopian iconoclasm of the Modern movement, whereas Venturi implied that Modern buildings were without meaning because they were designed in a simplistic and puritan way that lacked the irony and complexity which enrich historical architecture. This dissatisfaction was translated into direct action in 1972 with the demolition of several 14-story slab blocks that had been built only 20 years earlier from designs by Yamasaki as part of the award-winning Pruitt-Igoe housing development in St. Louis, Mo. Similar apartment blocks in Europe and North America were demolished in the following decades, but it was at St. Louis that the postmodernist era was begun. Figure 26: Portland Public Service Building, Oregon, by Michael Graves, 198082. Venturi's Learning from Las Vegas (with Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour) was also published in 1972. In seeking to rehumanize architecture by ridding it of the restricting purism of the Modern movement, the authors pointed for guidance to the playful commercial architecture and billboards of the Las Vegas highways. Venturi and his partner John Rauch reintroduced to architectural design elements of wit, humanity, and historical reference in buildings such as the Tucker House, Katonah, N.Y. (1975), and the Brant-Johnson House, Vail, Colo. (1976). These owed something to Lutyens, who, as a master of paradox and complexity, exercised a deep appeal for Venturi and for his followers, such as Charles Moore and Michael Graves. Graves's Portland Public Service Building, Portland, Ore. (198082; Figure 26), and Humana Tower, Louisville, Ky. (1986), have the bulk of the modern skyscraper yet incorporate historical souvenirs such as the colonnade, belvedere, keystone, and swag. Like Moore's Piazza d'Italia, New Orleans (197580), and Alumni Center, University of California at Irvine (198385), these confident and colourful buildings are intended to reassure the public that it need no longer feel that its cultural identity is threatened by modern architecture. That mood was encapsulated in Venice in 1980 when a varied group of American and European architects, including Venturi, Moore, Paolo Portoghesi, Aldo Rossi, Hans Hollein, Ricardo Bofill, and Lon Krier, provided designs for an exhibition organized by the Venice Biennale under the title, The Presence of the Past. These key architects of postmodernism represented several different outlooks but shared the ambition of banishing the fear of memory from modern architectural design. The many American architects in the 1970s and '80s who adopted a populist language scattered with classical souvenirs included Philip Johnson and his partner John Burgee and the prolific Robert Stern. Johnson and Burgee designed the AT&T Building, New York City (197884), a skyscraper with a Chippendale skyline. Their School of Architecture Building, University of Houston (198285), is inspired by Ledoux's project for a House of Education at Chaux (177379). Stern's Observatory Hill Dining Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (198284), is in a cheerful Jeffersonian classicism, while his Prospect Point Office Building, La Jolla, Calif. (198385), incorporates Spanish Colonial references. Many postmodernist architects were either trained by or began their careers as modernists, and many elements of Modernism carried over into postmodernism, especially in the work of architects such as Graves, Venturi, and Richard Meier. Rejecting the playful elements in such buildings as kitsch, some architects, notably Allan Greenberg and John Blatteau, chose a more historically faithful classical style, as in their official reception rooms of the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. (198485). The most complete instance of historical accuracy is probably the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, Calif. (197075), an essay in Neoclassicism designed by the Los Angeles partnership of Langdon and Wilson, who relied on archaeological advice to achieve the authentic character of a Roman villa at Herculaneum. Figure 27: Les Espaces d'Abraxas, Marne-la-Valle, by Ricardo Bofill, 197883. A similar duality existed in this period in Britain, where the populist style of Graves was paralleled in the work of Terry Farrell (TV-am Studios, Camden Town, London, 1983), and of James Stirling (Clore Gallery at the Tate Gallery, London, 198087), while undeviating classicism was pursued by Quinlan Terry (Riverside Development, Richmond, Surrey, 198688), Julian Bicknell (Henbury Rotunda, Cheshire, 198486), and John Simpson (Ashfold House, Sussex, 198587). The spirit of classical urban renewal was represented in France by Christian Langlois's Senate Building, rue de Vaugirard, Paris (1975), and the Regional Council Building in Orlans (197981). Urban preoccupations have been more dramatically expressed in France by Ricardo Bofill's vast housing developments, such as Les Espaces d'Abraxas, Marne-la-Valle, near Paris (197883; Figure 27). The gargantuan scale of this columnar architecture of prefabricated concrete pushes the language of classicism to its limits and beyond. A third branch of postmodernism was represented by a neorationalist or elementalist approach that echoes the stripped classicism of the 19th and early 20th century. This movement was again in part a reaction to changes in the urban environment by the combination of commercial pressure and Modern movement ideology. Neorationalism originated in Italy where the architect Aldo Rossi published an influential book, L'architettura della citt (1966; The Architecture of the City). Rossi's Modena Cemetery (197177) exhibits both his austerely fundamental classicism and his concern for contextualism, since it echoes features of the local farms and factories of Lombardy. Neorationalist ideals have also been realized in the Italian-speaking Swiss canton of Ticino: for example, in the work of Mario Campi (Casa Maggi, Arosio, 1980); Mario Botta; and Bruno Reichlin and Fabio Reinhardt, whose Casa Tonino, Torricella (197274), is a pristine stripped Palladian essay in white concrete. Close to this work is a group of buildings in the Basque region, including the School at Ikastola (197478) by Miguel Garay and Jos-Ignacio Linazasoro; Casa Mendiola at Andoian (197778) by Garay; and the Rural Centre at Cordobilla (1981) by Manuel Iniguez and Alberto Ustarroz. The projects of the German architect Oswald Matthias Ungersfor example, his Stadtloggia in the Hildesheim marketplace (1980)promoted the same kind of rationalist contextualism in Germany. They have been influential on the design of infill buildings in other historic towns in Germany, Italy, and France. The Viennese architect Hans Hollein also contributed to this vein of radical eclecticism, as in his sophisticated interiors in the Austrian Travel Bureau, Vienna (1978), which distantly recall the city of Otto Wagner and Josef Hoffmann. The urban work of the Belgian architect Rob Krier has been related to this movement, as can be seen in his housing in the Ritterbergstrasse, Berlin (197880). His brother, Lon Krier, has been influential in both the United States and Britain for his iconlike drawings of city planning schemes in a ruthlessly simple classical style and for his polemical attacks on what he sees as the destruction by modern technology of civic order and human dignity. The 1920s revivalist element in the neorationalist movement is demonstrated in the United States in the work of Richard Meier, for example in his Smith House, Darien, Conn. (196567), inspired by Le Corbusier's Citrohan and Domino houses, and his more complex High Museum, Atlanta (198083). Helmut Jahn's Bank of the South West, Houston (1982), recalls the Art Deco glass skyscraper, while the prolific Kevin Roche, originally a minimalist trained in the 1950s by Eero Saarinen, returned to the heroic formalism of the early skyscrapers for his Morgan Bank headquarters, New York City (198387), a 48-story skyscraper resting on a 70-foot-high entrance loggia of coupled granite columns. In Japan, Isozaki Arata and Yamashita Kazumasa led the move away from Brutalism and Metabolism toward a postmodernism inspired by Charles Moorefor example, Isozaki's Tsukuba Centre building, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki (1983), and Yamashita's Japan Folk Arts Museum, Tokyo (1982). In India, Charles Correa led a parallel shift away from high-rise mass-housing of the Le Corbusier type. In the 1950s he worked in the International style, as in his hotel of white concrete at Ahmadabad, but in later low-rise housing and in his book, The New Landscape (1985), he demonstrated the virtues of a return to the more indigenous building types of the Third World. The spirit of technology is, by contrast, celebrated in the Centre Pompidou, Paris (197177), by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers. With its services and structure exposed externally and painted in primary colours, this exhibition centre can be seen as an outrageous joke in the historic centre of Paris. Though defiantly modern, it has a postmodernist flavour as a playful statement of the modernist belief, going back at least to Viollet-le-Duc, in the truthful exposure of the structural bones of a building. Rogers repeated the theme in his Lloyd's Building, London (198486), but Stirling's addition to the Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Ger. (197782), is a key postmodernist building in the Venturi sense: that is, it makes ironic references to the language of Schinkel without accepting the fundamental principles of classicism. David John Watkin Additional reading General works Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture, 19th ed., edited by John Musgrove (1987), provides a comprehensive standard survey of Western architecture; as do David Watkin, A History of Western Architecture (1986); Spiro Kostof, A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals (1985); and Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture, 7th ed. (1963, reprinted 1974). Standard reference works include Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker (eds.), Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Knstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 37 vol. (190750, reprinted 1978); continued by Hans Vollmer (ed.), Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Knstler des XX. Jahrhunderts, 6 vol. (195362); Encyclopedia of World Art, 16 vol. (195983); and Adolf K. Placzek (ed.), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects, 4 vol. (1982). See also Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre, Classical Architecture: The Poetics of Order (1986; originally published in Dutch, 1983); and Roger Scruton, The Aesthetics of Architecture (1979). Bronze Age Introductions to the architecture of the period are found in Emily Vermeule, Greece in the Bronze Age (1972); and John Boardman, Pre-Classical: From Crete to Archaic Greece (1967, reprinted 1978). Sir Arthur Evans, The Palace of Minos: A Comparative Account of the Successive Stages of the Early Cretan Civilization as Illustrated by the Discoveries at Knossos, 4 vol. in 6 (192135, reissued 1964), is a classic on Minoan architecture; it is in part superseded by Richard W. Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete (1962); and Sinclair Hood, The Minoans: The Story of Bronze Age Crete (1971). For Helladic art, see George E. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age (1966); and Lord William Taylour, The Mycenaeans, rev. ed. (1983). For Cyprus, see Vassos Karageorghis, Cyprus, from the Stone Age to the Romans, new ed. (1982), with a useful bibliography; and for the western Mediterranean, Antonio Arribas, The Iberians (1964); David Trump, Central and Southern Italy Before Rome (1966); and Mario Moretti and Guglielmo Maetzke, The Art of the Etruscans (1970; originally published in Italian, 1969). Classical Gre

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