Meaning of FRONT in English
in meteorology, interface or transition zone between two air masses of different density and temperature; the sporadic flareups of weather along this zone, with occasional thunderstorms and electrical activity, was, to the Norwegian meteorologists who gave it its name during World War I, analogous to the fighting along the battle line in Europe. Frontal zones are frequently accompanied by low barometric pressure (a pressure trough), marked changes in wind direction and relative humidity, and considerable cloudiness and precipitation. There are several different types of front, depending basically on which air mass is displacing the other at the ground. Meteorologists call the leading edge of an advancing mass of relatively cold air a cold front. In middle latitudes of both hemispheres, cold fronts tend to move toward the Equator and eastward, with the most advanced position right at the ground. At a height of about 1.5 km (1 mile), the front usually lies 80 to 160 km (50 to 100 miles) behind its surface position; thus, its slope is 1/50 to 1/100. A cold front is usually associated with showers and thunderstorms. As it advances, often quite rapidly (50 to 65 km [30 to 40 miles] per hour), the cold air, which is relatively dense, undercuts the displaced warm air, forcing it to rise. In extreme cases, the resulting instability may lead to the formation of a squall line of severe thunderstorms and possibly tornadoes parallel to and about 80 km ahead of the surface position of the cold front. The precipitation usually stops abruptly after the front passes. A warm front is the boundary between an advancing mass of warm air and a retreating mass of cold air. At constant atmospheric pressure, warm air is less dense than cold air, and so it tends to override, rather than displace, the cold air. As a result, a warm front usually moves quite slowly, if at all. Warm fronts are often quite diffuse and difficult to locate precisely. Their inclination, or slope, is much less than that of cold fronts. At a height of about 1.5 km, the front usually lies about 320 km (200 miles) ahead (to the north or northeast in the Northern Hemisphere) of its surface position. Warm-front precipitation is generally much more uniform and widespread than that associated with cold fronts. Sometimes in winter, if the warm air overrides cold air at subfreezing temperatures, severe ice storms may develop more than 100 km (62 miles) ahead of the surface position of the warm front. If, as often happens, a warm front is quickly overtaken by a cold front moving rapidly around a low-pressure centre, the end result is an occluded front, characterized by low temperatures, much cloudiness, and widespread precipitation, often in the form of snow. Cyclonic storms in middle latitudes often start out as an undulation, or wave, on a preexisting frontal boundary between warm and cold air masses. As the wave moves and intensifies, its amplitude increases in much the same way that the amplitude of an ocean wave, starting out as a ripple, increases as it moves shoreward. Eventually, the advancing cold air behind the cold front catches up with the slower-moving cold air under the warm front. The intervening tongue of warm air is pushed aloft, and the wave breaks or becomes occluded. At this point the kinetic energy of the storm, derived from the sinking of cold air and the rising of warm air, usually reaches its maximum intensity. A wave cyclone, with its attendant low atmospheric pressure and stormy weather, occasionally develops on a so-called stationary front (a boundary between air masses with different thermal characteristics that has little or no horizontal motion). Storms affecting the northeastern United States, for example, often develop from a perturbation on a stationary front over the southern or southeastern states; such storms are often quite severe, the energy of motion being provided by the large thermal contrast between cold polar air to the north and warm tropical air to the south. The variable weather conditions that are typical of middle latitudes are associated largely with fluctuations in the location and intensity of a semipermanent, semicontinuous boundary known as a polar front. Polar fronts, located between 30 and 60 latitude in both hemispheres, average about 160 km (100 miles) in width. Very often a jet stream of strong westerly windsdriven by the large thermal contrast between the cold, dry polar air and the warm, moist tropical airis located 10 to 12 km (6 to 7 miles) directly above the location of the front. The strong thermal contrast within the front serves as a source of potential energy for the development of cyclonic (centred on a low-pressure area) storm systems along the front. The region near the Equator in which the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet was once designated the equatorial, or intertropical, front. Although the wind and weather patterns of this region closely resemble those found along fronts in middle latitudes (i.e., they exhibit long lines of cumulonimbus clouds, a rapid wind shift, and a sharp drop in temperature), most modern tropical meteorologists prefer the name equatorial-trough disturbance, because the observed cooling that occurs in the disturbed zone is attributed to evaporation of falling rain and the lack of direct sunlight rather than to the replacement of one air mass by another.
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012