Abadi, Agha Hasan Indian-born Pakistani financier who founded the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (b. May 14, 1922--d. Aug. 5, 1995). Abbott, George Francis U.S. theatrical director, producer, playwright, actor, and motion-picture director (b. June 25, 1887, Forestville, N.Y.--d. Jan. 31, 1995, Miami Beach, Fla.), as the dean of Broadway showmen, brought a no-nonsense approach, a flair for establishing pacing and humour, and an exceptional ability to maintain action effectively to the staging of some of the most popular Broadway musicals and farces that appeared from the 1920s to the '60s. His more than 120 productions over an eight-decade career bore his unmistakable touch, often as a play doctor. From 1948 through 1962 Abbott's shows garnered a remarkable 40 Tony awards, including five for him. (He received a special lifetime achievement Tony award in 1976.) After graduating (1911) from the University of Rochester, N.Y., Abbott studied drama at Harvard University before making his acting debut in The Misleading Lady (1913). He performed until the 1920s, when he turned to playwriting. Abbott scored a huge success with Broadway (1926) and followed that with such plaudit-gathering melodramas as Chicago (1926), Four Walls (1927), and Coquette (1927). He established a reputation as a master of farce with Twentieth Century (1932), Three Men on a Horse (1935), and Boy Meets Girl (1935). Among his directorial efforts were Jumbo (1935), On Your Toes (1936), The Boys from Syracuse (1938), Pal Joey (1940), On the Town (1944), Where's Charley? (1948), Call Me Madam (1950), A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1951), The Pajama Game (1954), Damn Yankees (1955), Fiorello! (1959), and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1962). He also collaborated on the screenplay for All Quiet on the Western Front (1930) and directed the film versions of The Pajama Game (1957) and Damn Yankees (1958). Abbott's autobiography, Mister Abbott, appeared in 1963. At 100 years of age he directed a revival of Broadway, and he collaborated on a Broadway revival of Damn Yankees shortly before his death at the age of 107. Alfvn, Hannes Olof Gsta Swedish astrophysicist (b. May 30, 1908, Norrkping, Sweden--d. April 2, 1995, Djursholm, Sweden), was one of the founders of the field of plasma physics and shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for Physics "for fundamental work in magnetohydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics." Alfvn was educated at Uppsala University (Ph.D., 1934) and taught at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, from 1940. His early research into auroras and atmospheric magnetic fields led him to theorize in 1942 that plasma (ionized matter in a semigaseous state) passing through magnetic fields in space would create electromagnetic waves (later called Alfvn waves). He also proposed an alternative to the big-bang model of the universe, postulating that the continuous interaction between matter and antimatter would produce an eternal oscillation between expansion and contraction. In 1963 Alfvn was named the Royal Institute's first professor of plasma physics. In 1967, in protest against the Swedish government's plans to build nuclear power plants, he left the institute and his job as a national science adviser and went to the U.S. to teach at the University of California at San Diego. He later reconciled with the Royal Institute and divided his time between San Diego and Stockholm. He retired in 1989. Alfvn's books include Cosmical Electrodynamics (1950), Structure and Evolutionary History of the Solar System (1975; with Gustaf Arrhenius), and a science-fiction novel written under a pseudonym. Allen, Walter Ernest British novelist, academic, and critic, best known for his 1954 study The English Novel (b. Feb. 23, 1911--d. Feb. 28, 1995). Almeida, Laurindo Brazilian virtuoso classical and jazz guitarist who helped popularize the bossa nova in the U.S. and who, as a guitarist and a composer of film sound-track music, notably The Godfather, won five Grammy awards (b. Sept. 2, 1917--d. July 26, 1995). Amis, Sir Kingsley William British novelist and poet (b. April 16, 1922, London, England--d. Oct. 22, 1995, London), created about 40 books--over 20 novels as well as several volumes of poetry, short stories, and miscellaneous other works--but remained best known for his first published novel, Lucky Jim (1953), which launched his literary career. A satire of academic life, it was regarded by some as one of the funniest books in the English language. It won the Somerset Maugham Award and gained Amis fame as one of Britain's Angry Young Men, a label he rejected. Amis also was considered representative of the so-called Movement poets of the 1950s. After Amis' education at St. John's College, Oxford, was interrupted by service in the Royal Corps of Signals during World War II, he graduated in 1947. He taught (1949-61) at universities in Wales and the U.S. and then accepted a post as fellow at Peterhouse College, Cambridge. He resigned in 1963 and thereafter--with the exception of a visiting professorship at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. (1967-68)--concentrated on his writing. Among his notable novels were That Uncertain Feeling (1955), Take a Girl like You (1960), The Green Man (1969), Girl, 20 (1971), Ending Up (1974), Jake's Thing (1978), and The Old Devils (1986), which won the Booker Prize. In addition, Amis also wrote a James Bond novel, Colonel Sun (1968), under the pseudonym Robert Markham. His last book was The Biographer's Moustache (1995). Though his early novels were considered liberal in tone, he had become increasingly conservative by the late 1960s, and some considered him an irascible curmudgeon. Nonetheless, he had the status of a British institution and remained one of the best of the moral satirists. Amis was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1981 and was knighted in 1990. Andrews, Maxene U.S. singer and entertainer (b. Jan. 3, 1916, Minneapolis, Minn.--d. Oct. 21, 1995, Hyannis, Mass.), formed, with her two sisters, Patty and LaVerne, the Andrews Sisters, whose blended harmonies and energetic style made them favourites of audiences. The group rocketed to fame in 1937 with their rendition of "Bei Mir Bist du Schn." During World War II the trio entertained U.S. troops overseas, belting out such hits as "Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy," "Don't Sit Under the Apple Tree," and "Rum and Coca-Cola." The Andrews Sisters became a cherished American icon and were hugely successful, selling more than 50 million records from the late 1930s to the early '40s. They appeared in scores of films and worked with the Glenn Miller Orchestra and Bing Crosby. Their relationships with one another, however, were fragile. In 1953 they disbanded, and Maxene and Patty went on to pursue solo careers. Three years later they reunited, but LaVerne died in 1967. In 1970 Maxene became dean of women at Tahoe Paradise College of Fine Arts, Lake Tahoe, Nev., and she eventually became its vice president. She and Patty teamed up in 1974 to make their Broadway debuts in Over Here! The show ran for more than a year, but the two became estranged and never sang together again. Maxene wrote a memoir, gave lectures, and performed in concerts, nightclubs, and musicals. Andrews, Michael James British painter (b. Oct. 30, 1928, Norwich, Norfolk, England--d. July 19, 1995, London, England), had a relatively small output of sizable, delicately wrought figurative paintings, each of which might consume months of careful planning and slow, painstaking brushwork. While Andrews was still a student at the Slade School of Fine Art in London (1949-53), his works were selected for inclusion in the 1952 exhibition "Young Painters" at the Institute of Contemporary Arts, London. One of his earliest paintings, "A Man Who Suddenly Fell Over," was later acquired by the Tate Gallery. He had his first successful solo exhibitions in 1958 and 1963. Andrews often grouped a series of enormous paintings around a single theme or variations of a single image. This technique was especially notable in his paintings of the Scottish Highlands, London nightlife, Ayers Rock in Australia, fish in water, and a solitary balloon floating above vast expanses of the bucolic English countryside. His canvas "A View from Uamh Mhor," a panoramic study of the Perthshire hills that had taken more than two years to complete, was named Picture of the Year at the Royal Academy's 1992 Summer Exhibition. Andrews' final completed painting was the second in a planned series on the River Thames. Anfinsen, Christian Boehmer U.S. biochemist (b. March 26, 1916, Monessen, Pa.--d. May 14, 1995, Randallstown, Md.), concentrated on research into the structure of enzymes, proteins that serve to promote biochemical reactions, and was co-winner with Stanford Moore and William H. Stein of the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for fundamental work on correlating the structural properties of proteins with their physiological functions. Anfinsen, who conducted his research while serving as chief of the laboratory of chemical biology at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Md., was honoured for having discerned how the protein enzyme ribonuclease folds to form a characteristic three-dimensional structure that determines its biochemical properties. His pioneering thinking on the interrelation of protein chemistry and genetics was set out in his innovative book The Molecular Basis of Evolution (1959). Anfinsen earned (1943) a Ph.D. from Harvard University and held a teaching position there and also at the University of Pennsylvania and the Nobel Medical Institute in Stockholm. He stayed at the NIH from 1950 to 1981 (except in 1962, when he taught at Harvard), when he joined Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., and began work examining the proteins of hyperthermophilic (extreme heat loving) bacteria taken from hydrothermal vents located on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. He served as editor of the journal Advances in Protein Chemistry and was the author of some 200 original scientific articles. Anwarul, Haq Pakistani jurist who, as chief justice of the Pakistan Supreme Court, cast the deciding vote upholding former prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's death sentence for conspiracy to murder (b. May 11, 1917--d. March 3, 1995). Aspin, Les(lie), Jr. U.S. politician (b. July 21, 1938, Milwaukee, Wis.--d. May 21, 1995, Washington, D.C.), was a Democrat from Wisconsin who won election in 1970 to the U.S. House of Representatives as an opponent of the Vietnam War. Later, while serving (1985-92) as chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, he supported the development of the multi-warhead MX missile and U.S. funding for the contra rebels attempting to overthrow the Marxist government in Nicaragua. Aspin also served as Pres. Bill Clinton's embattled defense secretary for 11 months until his resignation in 1994. In the latter post Aspin gained a reputation for indecisiveness. While attempting to implement Clinton's campaign promise to allow homosexuals to serve openly in the military, Aspin developed the unsatisfactory "don't ask, don't tell" compromise. He broadened the combat role of women and was widely praised for his initiative to restructure the U.S. military in a post-Cold War climate, but he failed to fortify U.S. troops in Somalia just weeks before 18 U.S. soldiers died there in a raid, an inaction that led to his resignation under pressure. Aspin, who earned a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, served as one of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's "whiz kids" at the Pentagon. He then returned to Wisconsin and was elected to the House of Representatives. After earning a position on the Armed Services Committee, Aspin made a name for himself by issuing frequent bulletins about financial mismanagement in the Pentagon. At the time of his death, Aspin was chairman of the president's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, a committee established to scrutinize U.S. intelligence agencies. Atanasoff, John Vincent U.S. physicist (b. Oct. 4, 1903, Hamilton, N.Y.--d. June 15, 1995, Frederick, Md.), was belatedly credited (1973) with developing the first electronic digital computer. That acknowledgment followed a lawsuit that resulted in a judge's voiding a patent owned by Sperry Rand Corp. on the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), an invention that had been recognized as the first electronic digital computer. Though Atanasoff gained legal stature for his achievement, many historians continued to credit ENIAC's inventors, J. Presper Eckert, Jr. (q.v.), and John W. Mauchly, as the founding fathers of the modern computer. With Clifford Berry, Atanasoff developed (1937-42) a fragile prototype, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC), at Iowa State University. The limited-function vacuum-tube device lacked a central processing unit and was not programmable but could solve differential equations using binary arithmetic. The machine was historically important because it contained design components of what would become the basic architecture of a computer, and the computer controversy stemmed from a 1941 visit that Mauchly made to Atanasoff and their discussion about the design of the ABC. Atanasoff abandoned his computer work to become chief of the acoustics division of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, Washington, D.C., and later headed two engineering firms. His contributions to computing were detailed in two 1988 books, The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story and Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer. He was the recipient in 1981 of the Computer Pioneer Medal and was honoured in 1990 with the National Medal of Technology. Ballantine, Ian Keith U.S. pioneer paperback book publisher (b. Feb. 15, 1916--d. March 9, 1995). Bambara, Toni Cade (TONI CADE), U.S. writer, civil rights activist, and teacher who penned short stories and other works that were written in distinctive dialects, featured sharply drawn characters, and chronicled the concerns of African-Americans living in the rural South and urban North (b. March 25, 1939--d. Dec. 9, 1995). Barrow, Dame (Ruth) Nita Barbadian public health official and diplomat (b. Nov. 15, 1916, St. Lucy, Barbados--d. Dec. 19, 1995, Bridgetown, Barbados), capped a long and distinguished career with her appointment in 1990 as the first woman governor-general of Barbados. Barrow, who was the sister of the country's first prime minister, Errol Barrow, studied nursing in Barbados, at the Universities of Toronto and Edinburgh, and at Columbia University, New York City. During the 1940s and '50s, she held a variety of nursing and public health posts in Barbados and Jamaica, and in 1964 she became an adviser to the World Health Organization (WHO). She rapidly gained international stature as nursing adviser (1967-71) to the Pan American Health Organization, medical commissioner (1971-80) and a president (1983) of the World Council of Churches, president (1975-83) of the World YWCA, health consultant (1981-86) to WHO, president (1982-90) of the International Council for Adult Education, and Barbadian ambassador (1986-90) to the UN. Barrow presided at the 1985 international women's conference in Nairobi, Kenya, and was the only woman named to the Eminent Persons Group set up to investigate racism in South Africa. In 1988 she lost a bid for the presidency of the UN General Assembly. Barrow was made Dame of the Order of St. Andrew in 1980. Bazargan, Mehdi Iranian political leader (b. September 1907?, Tehran, Iran--d. Jan. 20, 1995, Zrich, Switz.), as a longtime leader of the Muslim opposition to Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, was named the first prime minister of the Islamic Republic of Iran on Feb. 5, 1979. His calls for moderation and order failed to stem the tide of violent fundamentalism under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, however, and he resigned on November 6, two days after extremists captured the U.S. embassy in Tehran. Barzargan was the son of an Azerbaijani merchant and was educated in thermodynamics and engineering at the cole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris. He returned to Iran to teach engineering at the University of Tehran, where he eventually became dean of the College of Technology. In 1951 he was made director of the newly nationalized oil industry by Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddeq. In 1953 Mosaddeq was ousted and the shah restored to power in a Western-backed coup. Despite being arrested and jailed several times, Bazargan continued to campaign against the shah, cofounding the opposition National Resistance Movement (1953) and the National Liberation Movement of Iran (1961). After Khomeini finally replaced the shah in 1979, Bazargan was appointed head of the provisional government. He complained that he had little real power, however, and resigned after only nine months when Khomeini supported the seizure of the U.S. embassy and the taking of more than 50 American hostages. Belladonna, Giorgio Italian contract bridge player who led the Italian Squadra Azzura, or Blue Team, to 10 European championships and 16 world titles between 1957 and 1975 (b. June 7, 1923--d. May 12, 1995). Bemberg, Maria Luisa Argentine motion-picture director (b. April 14, 1922, Buenos Aires, Arg.--d. May 7, 1995, Buenos Aires), challenged tradition when she embarked on a directing career after expressing disappointment at the way her semiautobiographical screenplays were interpreted by male directors and later emerged as Latin America's foremost female director. Bemberg, who was raised in a patrician family, married and bore four children but felt unfulfilled in that role and secured a divorce. She found her feminist voice as a screenwriter when she was 48 and financed her first feature-length film, Momentos (1981), at the age of 59. In her six films she explored--in a context of political oppression--women's struggles to assume their rightful place in a patriarchal society. Her second film, Senora de Nadie (1982), focused on the friendship between a woman separated from her husband and a gay man. Camila (1984), a true story about a woman who fell in love with a priest and was executed, was followed by Miss Mary (1987), an examination of the influences of a British governess on her charges. Another film, Yo, la peor de todas (I, the Worst of All; 1990), was considered by many her best work and told the story of the 17th-century nun Juana Ines de la Cruz, a poet and thinker whose ideas were too radical for her times. Bemberg's last film was We Don't Want to Talk About It (1992), a fairy tale starring Marcello Mastroianni as an elderly gentleman who loves a dwarf. Bernays, Edward L. U.S. publicist (b. Nov. 22, 1891, Vienna, Austria--d. March 9, 1995, Cambridge, Mass.), monitored, modified, and molded public opinion as the astute "father of public relations." He profoundly influenced the commercialization of American culture and shaped attitudes by relying on tradition, the testimony of experts, and the results of surveys to help endorse products. As the nephew of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, Bernays also recognized the importance of using psychology and drawing on the social sciences to influence the opinions of a particular audience. After graduating (1912) from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., with a degree in agriculture, Bernays soon abandoned the grain market and found his niche as a publicist. When the producer of the play Damaged Goods found that the taboo theme of venereal disease was limiting support for his production, Bernays secured endorsements from civic leaders, a move that ensured the play's success. He then worked as a propaganda agent for the U.S. government during World War I before opening his own office with his future wife, Doris Fleischman. He used his expertise to promote a wide range of products for such clients as General Electric, General Motors, Time, CBS, and NBC. For Procter & Gamble's Ivory soap, he sponsored children's soap-carving competitions; for Venida hairnets, he stressed the safety aspects for women who worked in factories near machinery and the sanitary aspects for women dealing with food in restaurants; and for the American Tobacco Co.'s Lucky Strike cigarettes, he helped gain acceptance for women to smoke in public. In later years, however, he opposed smoking and participated in antismoking campaigns. Bernays, whose counsel was sought even after he celebrated his 100th birthday, divulged his insights into public relations in more than a dozen books. Berque, Jacques Augustin French sociologist, Orientalist, author of many books on the Arab world, and translator of the Qur`an into French (b. June 4, 1910--d. June 27, 1995). Bhatia, Prem Indian journalist, newspaper editor, political commentator, and diplomat (b. Aug. 11, 1911--d. May 8, 1995). Birla, Aditya Vikram Indian industrialist who headed the Birla Group, an international business empire that included interests in aluminum, textiles, petrochemicals, and telecommunications (b. Nov. 14, 1944--d. Oct. 1, 1995). Birney, (Alfred) Earle Canadian poet and writer (b. May 13, 1904, Calgary, Alta.--d. Sept. 3, 1995, Toronto, Ont.), was one of the most highly esteemed poets in Canada. He was especially well-known for his controversial poem "David" (1941), about the mercy killing of a young mountain climber badly injured in a fall. It was included in most Canadian high-school literature studies and was featured in David, and Other Poems (1942), which earned (1943) Birney the first of two Governor-General's awards. The second, in 1946, was for Now Is Time (1945). Birney earned a B.A. (1926) from the University of British Columbia and an M.A. (1927) and a Ph.D. (1936) from the University of Toronto. He taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1927-30), the University of Utah (1930-34), and the University of Toronto (1936-42), and from 1936 to 1940 he was literary editor of Canadian Forum, which showcased works of newly discovered young poets. His experiences while serving in the army during World War II provided material for one of his novels, Turvey (1949), for which he won the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour. After the war Birney worked for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for a short time before returning (1946) to academe, at the University of British Columbia. From 1965 to 1984 he taught at a number of campuses in Canada and the U.S. In the late 1950s he began giving lectures and readings all over the world. His travels influenced his poetry, in which he adopted the viewpoint of a stranger in the observation of cultures. His poems were published in at least 15 languages. Birney also wrote verse plays, radio plays, short stories, and essays on literary criticism. His poetry collections include Selected Poems, 1940-1966 (1966), The Collected Poems of Earle Birney (1975), Ghost in the Wheels (1977), Copernican Fix (1985), and Last Makings (1991). Blaine, Vivian U.S. actress of stage and screen who was best remembered for her showstopping rendition of "Adelaide's Lament" in both the Broadway and film productions of Guys and Dolls (b. Nov. 21, 1921--d. Dec. 9, 1995). Blake, Hector ("TOE"), Canadian hockey player and coach (b. Aug. 21, 1912, Victoria Mines, N.S.--d. May 17, 1995, Montreal, Que.), was a strict disciplinarian and brilliant strategist who helped the Montreal Canadiens secure 11 Stanley Cup victories, 3 of them as a player and a record 8 as a coach. Blake joined the team in 1936 after two seasons with the Montreal Maroons. As a Canadien he played left wing on the "Punch Line" with Maurice ("the Rocket") Richard and Elmer Lach, two other deadly scorers. In the 1938-39 season Blake was the recipient of both the Art Ross Trophy and the Hart Trophy as the National Hockey League's leading scorer and most valuable player, respectively. After breaking his ankle in 1948, he retired as a player but found a new career in 1955 when he returned to the team as its coach. Blake was defined by an ever-present fedora, a tough yet fair coaching style, and an impressive 13-year record that included nine first-place finishes, eight Stanley Cup trophies, and a .634 winning percentage. After his retirement in 1968, Blake remained a guiding force as a team vice president and as the proprietor of a beer hall that served as the club's unofficial headquarters. Blane, Ralph U.S. Tin Pan Alley songwriter of such all-time favourites as "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas," "The Boy Next Door," and "Trolley Song" (b. July 26, 1914--d. Nov. 13, 1995). Bolt, Robert Oxton British dramatist (b. Aug. 15, 1924, Sale, near Manchester, England--d. Feb. 20, 1995, near Petersfield, Hampshire, England), drew international acclaim for his play A Man for All Seasons (1960; filmed 1966), in which he used the clash between King Henry VIII and Sir Thomas More to explore the struggle by which a man of honour and integrity achieves a kind of heroism in the face of moral ambiguity and historic upheaval. He continued to explore this issue in the screenplays for Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and Doctor Zhivago (1965), as well as the scripts for the films Ryan's Daughter (1970), Lady Caroline Lamb (1972), The Bounty (1984), and The Mission (1986). Bolt attended Victoria University of Manchester (B.A.; 1949) after completing his World War II military service. He began writing radio dramas while working as a schoolteacher, but the success of his first major play, Flowering Cherry (1957), allowed him to write full-time. Other plays include The Tiger and the Horse (1960), Gentle Jack (1963), Vivat! Vivat Regina! (1970), and State of Revolution (1977). His career was disrupted in 1979 by a near-fatal stroke. Bolt won Academy Awards for the screenplays of A Man for All Seasons and Doctor Zhivago and was made Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1972. Borsos, Phillip Canadian film director (b. May 5, 1953, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia--d. Feb. 1, 1995, Vancouver, B.C.), was a visionary perfectionist who captured the haunting beauty of the Canadian landscape in films that featured a poetic storytelling style. While in high school he was given a 16-mm Bolex camera, which sparked a lifelong obsession with filmmaking. After making a series of short documentary films about workers and craftsmen, notably Cooperage (1976), Spartree (1977), and the Academy Award-nominated Nails (1979), Borsos made an extraordinary feature-film debut with The Grey Fox (1982), a romantic saga about Bill Miner, a stagecoach bandit who turned to robbing trains in turn-of-the-century British Columbia. That film won a Genie award as best picture at the Canadian Film Awards. Borsos directed four other feature films--The Mean Season (1985), One Magic Christmas (1985), Bethune: The Making of a Hero (1988), and Far from Home: The Adventures of Yellow Dog (1995)--before succumbing to acute myeloid leukemia. Botvinnik, Mikhail Moiseyevich Soviet chess grandmaster (b. Aug. 17 [Aug. 4, Old Style], 1911, Kuokkala, near St. Petersburg, Russia--d. May 5, 1995, Moscow, Russia), was the first Soviet world chess champion (1948-57, 1958-60, 1961-63). Botvinnik learned chess at the relatively advanced age of 12, but within two years he had defeated the reigning world champion, Jos Ral Capablanca of Cuba, in an exhibition match. In 1931 he won the first of seven national championships. He graduated in electrical engineering from the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute (1932) and worked as an engineer during World War II, although he was allowed to concentrate on chess three days a week. After the death of Alexander Alekhine of France left the world title open, Botvinnik defeated four other grandmasters in a championship tournament (1948). He successfully defended his title in 1951 and 1954. He lost in 1957 (to Vasily Smyslov) and 1961 (to Mikhail Tal), but both times he regained the championship in the mandatory rematch. When he lost to Tigran Petrosyan in 1963, rematches were no longer obligatory. He retired from competition in 1970. Botvinnik was known as a brilliant tactician and an intimidating competitor who could withstand the most distracting conditions. He also wrote several books on chess tactics, worked on a computer chess program, and ran a chess school, where his students included future world champions Anatoly Karpov and Gary Kasparov. Boutin, Franois French racehorse trainer (b. Jan. 21, 1937, Beaunay, France--d. Feb. 1, 1995, Paris, France), in a 31-year career as one of France's leading Thoroughbred trainers, won more than 1,880 races, including 17 French classics and major races in Britain and the U.S. Boutin was the son of a farmer in Normandy and showed a flair with horses even as a boy. He drove in trotting races and rode in cross-country and flat-track races, as well as show-jumping and events competitions. He apprenticed as a trainer, obtained his license in 1964, and established his own stable in 1966. Although Boutin never won the three most prestigious races--the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe (France), the Derby (England), and the Kentucky Derby (U.S.)--his horses captured most of the other Group 1 races and made him France's leading money winner seven times (1976, 1978-81, and 1983-84). Outside France, Boutin was perhaps best known as the trainer of Sagaro, which won the Ascot Gold Cup three times (1975-77); Nureyev, which triumphed in the 1980 English Two Thousand Guineas before being disqualified for jockey interference; Miesque, which won the Breeders' Cup Mile and the Turf female title in two consecutive years (1987 and 1988); and Arazi, which recovered from 20 lengths off the pace to capture a spectacular come-from-behind victory in the 1991 Breeders' Cup Juvenile. Braithwaite, Max Canadian author (b. Dec. 7, 1911, Nokomis, Sask.--d. March 19, 1995, Brighton, Ont.), drew on his humorous experiences as a teacher in Depression-era rural Saskatchewan in Why Shoot the Teacher? (1965), which was made into an award-winning film of the same title in 1977 and became part of a trilogy that includes Never Sleep Three in a Bed (1969) and The Night We Stole the Mountie's Car (1971). The latter volume was awarded the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour in 1972. Braithwaite, who was educated at the University of Saskatchewan, was a superb craftsman who compassionately captured the spirit of the prairie people and the hardships they endured during the "Dirty Thirties." His work as a freelance included writing radio dramas, film and stage scripts, and articles for Canadian magazines. Among his more than 20 books was a series for children, including The Mystery of the Muffled Man (1962) and The Valley of the Vanishing Birds (1963). An adult book, All the Way Home (1986), returned to the theme of poverty. Brett, Jeremy (PETER JEREMY WILLIAM HUGGINS), British actor who began his career in classical theatre and portrayed dashing young aristocrats, notably Freddie Eynsford-Hill in the 1964 film My Fair Lady, but found his signature role as the quintessential Sherlock Holmes onstage and in Granada Television's 41-part series, 1984-95 (b. Nov. 3, 1935--d. Sept. 12, 1995). Brophy, Brigid Antonia British novelist (b. June 12, 1929, London, England--d. Aug. 7, 1995, Louth, Lincolnshire, England), enjoyed a dual career as a writer and as a crusader for feminist issues, animal rights, and increased royalty payments for writers. Her campaign for establishing lending rights for authors resulted (1979) in a law that provided government royalty payments to authors whenever one of their books was checked out of a British library. Brophy attended (1947-48) St. Hugh's College, Oxford, but was expelled. A volume of short stories, The Crown Princess, was published in 1953, but it was the publication later that year of her first novel, the imaginative fantasy Hackenfeller's Ape, that brought her to the public's attention. It won (1954) the Cheltenham Literary Festival's prize for first novel. Brophy went on to write such novels as Flesh (1962), The Snow Ball (1964), In Transit (1969), and Palace Without Chairs (1978), her last novel. She also wrote the play The Burglar (1967), contributed to the controversial Fifty Works of English and American Literature We Could Do Without (1967), and, in one of her many other nonfiction works, the essay collection Baroque 'n' Roll (1987), described her battle with multiple sclerosis. Even after the disease confined her to her house, she continued to champion causes. Brophy became a fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1973. Brunner, John Kilian Houston British science-fiction writer whose popular novels include The Sheep Look Up, The Shockwave Rider, and the Hugo Award-winning Stand on Zanzibar (b. Sept. 24, 1934--d. Aug. 25, 1995). Burger, Warren Earl U.S. Supreme Court chief justice (b. Sept. 17, 1907, St. Paul, Minn.--d. June 25, 1995, Washington, D.C.), presided (1969-86) as the 15th chief justice of the United States. Burger, who attended night school to earn a law degree (1931) from St. Paul (now William Mitchell) College of Law, joined a prominent law firm in his hometown while gradually becoming active in Republican Party politics. After helping Dwight D. Eisenhower secure the 1952 presidential nomination, Burger was rewarded with the post of assistant attorney general. In 1956 he was elevated to the U.S. Court of Appeals, where he acquired a reputation as a conservative and came to the attention of Pres. Richard M. Nixon, who needed to replace retiring liberal Chief Justice Earl Warren. Though Burger and three other Nixon appointees were expected to reverse the activist thrust that characterized the Warren legacy on civil rights issues and criminal law, they upheld both the 1966 Miranda decision, requiring that a criminal suspect under arrest be informed of his rights, and the decision to validate busing as a means of racially desegregating public schools. Though generally steering a conservative course, Burger voted with the majority in the court's landmark 1973 decision (Roe v. Wade) that established a woman's constitutional right to have an abortion, and in 1974 he wrote the legal opinion for the 8-0 decision that struck down executive privilege and forced Nixon to surrender White House tapes containing conversations about the Watergate scandal. Burger also unsealed court records that named Nixon an "unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate affair. Nixon was then forced to resign. Burger was noted for taking an activist role in the administration of the court. He modernized and computerized the court and overhauled the entire judicial system, though his campaign to create a new level of appellate courts to lighten the Supreme Court's caseload failed to gain support. In 1986 Burger, the longest-serving chief justice in the 20th century, unexpectedly resigned to assume the chairmanship of the commission planning the bicentennial celebration of the U.S. Constitution (1987). He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1988. His book, It Is So Ordered (1995), examined 14 cases that helped shape constitutional interpretation. Burri, Alberto Italian artist (b. March 12, 1915, Citt di Castello, Italy--d. Feb. 13, 1995, Nice, France), devised collages and abstractions by using such unorthodox materials as old rags, sackcloth, burnt wood, cellophane, rusted metal, and brightly coloured plastic, often scorched or partially melted. Burri trained as a physician at the University of Perugia and served in the army medical corps in North Africa during World War II. He began painting while interned in a prisoner-of-war camp in Texas and abandoned medicine entirely when he was repatriated to Rome about 1946. Although Burri's earliest works were conventional landscapes and still lifes, he quickly moved in a new direction with a series of pieces in which he used burlap sacks--stitched together, torn, patched, and splashed with red paint--to evoke powerful images of bloodstained wartime field dressings. His first major exhibition was in Rome in 1947. From the early 1950s, Burri divided his time between Europe and the U.S., where his work influenced young American abstract painters and collagists. Butenandt, Adolf Friedrich Johann German biochemist (b. March 24, 1903, Bremerhaven-Lehe, Germany--d. Jan. 18, 1995, Munich, Germany), was the co-winner (with Leopold Ruzicka) of the 1939 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for pioneering work (1929-34) on sex hormones, primarily the isolation of estrone (a hormone that influences development of the female reproductive tract), progesterone (a female hormone that primarily regulates the condition of the inner lining of the uterus), and the male hormone androsterone. Butenandt also synthesized testosterone, which stimulates the development of masculine characteristics. He isolated estrone about the time that biochemist Edward Doisy accomplished the same feat in the U.S. Butenandt, who was also the first to explain the role of these hormones, found that they are closely related to steroids. Forbidden by Germany's Nazi government to receive the Nobel Prize when it was awarded him, he accepted the gold medal and diploma in 1949. His discoveries about hormones influenced the large-scale production of cortisone and laid the groundwork for the development of birth control pills. Butenandt, the first to crystallize an insect hormone, ecdysone, also was the first to isolate a pheromone, bombykol, the sex attractant of the female silkworm moth. After earning (1927) a Ph.D. from the University of Gttingen, he taught there and at the Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) Institute of Technology (1933-36). He was director (1936-45) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry, Berlin-Dahlem (now Tbingen), and professor of physiological chemistry there from 1945 to 1956. When the institute (after World War II renamed the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry) moved to Munich in 1956, he retained those posts. Butenandt also served (1960-72) as president of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science. Cairncross, John British government official who was identified in 1991 as the long-sought "fifth man" in the notorious Soviet spy ring that included Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Donald MacLean, and Anthony Blunt (b. July 27, 1913--d. Oct. 8, 1995). Caro Baroja, Julio Spanish Basque anthropologist and historian who was best known for his ethnographic studies of Basque and Spanish traditional cultures and folklore (b. Nov. 13, 1914--d. Aug. 18, 1995). Cash, Rosalind U.S. stage and screen actress who performed with the Negro Ensemble Company and was especially noted for her portrayal of the daughter in Ceremonies in Dark Old Men, 1969, a role she reprised for television in 1975 (b. Dec. 31, 1938--d. Oct. 31, 1995). Chadwick, Florence U.S. swimmer who in 1950 broke the women's record for swimming the English Channel from France to England and in 1955 broke the world record for swimming from England to France (b. Nov. 9, 1918--d. March 15, 1995). Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan Indian-born U.S. astrophysicist (b. Oct. 19, 1910, Lahore, India [now in Pakistan]--d. Aug. 21, 1995, Chicago, Ill.), shared with William A. Fowler the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for his theory on the later stages of stellar evolution, work that subsequently led to the discovery of neutron stars and black holes. This theory, which contradicted the then current belief that all dying stars end their lives by contracting into extremely dense white dwarfs, predicted that stars with masses greater than 1.4 times that of the Sun (the Chandrasekhar limit, eventually revised to 1.2 solar masses) would collapse into objects smaller and denser than white dwarfs--neutron stars and black holes. Chandrasekhar received (1930) a B.A. from Presidency College, University of Madras, India, and completed (1933) his doctorate in theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge. In 1937 he joined the University of Chicago at Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, Wis., becoming (1952) the Morton D. Hull distinguished service professor of astrophysics, a post he held until 1986, when he became professor emeritus. During this time the focus of his research shifted among such topics as stellar structure, the transfer of energy in stellar atmospheres, and black holes. From 1952 to 1971 he served as editor of the Astrophysical Journal, which became the national journal of the American Astronomical Society. The recipient of numerous awards, including the 1953 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Chandrasekhar was also the author of 10 books; his last, Newton's "Principia" for the Common Reader, was published in 1995.
YEAR IN REVIEW 1996: OBITUARY
Meaning of YEAR IN REVIEW 1996: OBITUARY in English
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012