Meaning of YEAR IN REVIEW 1998: OBITUARY in English

YEAR IN REVIEW 1998: OBITUARY

Aguilar Manzo, Luis (The Wild Rooster) Mexican singer and actor whose career spanned half a century and included some 150 movies, most notably the comedy Full Steam Ahead (1951), in which he played a motorcycle policeman seeking romance and adventure (b. Jan. 29, 1918--d. Oct. 24, 1997). Akii-Bua, John Ugandan athlete who in 1972 became the first, and thus far the only, Ugandan to win an Olympic gold medal when he triumphed in the 400-m hurdles in 47.82 seconds, a world record (b. Dec. 3, 1949--d. June 20, 1997). Allchurch, Ivor John Welsh association football (soccer) player who was the "Golden Boy" of Welsh soccer from 1949 to 1968. Allchurch, an inside forward known for his superb ball control, scored 251 goals in 694 league matches, mainly for Swansea Town, Newcastle United, and Cardiff City, made a then-record 23 goals in 68 appearances for Wales, and was instrumental in guiding Wales in 1958 to its only appearance in a World Cup final, where it narrowly lost to Brazil in a semifinal match (b. Dec. 16, 1929--d. July 9, 1997). Allison, Luther American blues singer and guitarist who during a 30-year career appeared with almost all of the leading blues performers and also served as an influence on rock and roll; although he was especially popular in Europe and had moved to Paris in 1983, recent American albums had brought new life to his career in the U.S. (b. Aug. 17, 1939--d. Aug. 12, 1997). Amin, Mustafa outspoken Egyptian journalist and publisher who was sentenced to life imprisonment under Pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser as an American spy in 1965, allegedly because he promoted Western-style democracy and closer ties to the U.S.; he was released by Pres. Anwar as-Sadat in 1974 (b. Feb. 21, 1914--d. April 13, 1997). Arcaro, George Edward ("Eddie") American jockey (b. Feb. 19, 1916, Cincinnati, Ohio--d. Nov. 14, 1997, Miami, Fla.), was one of the greatest riders in the history of thoroughbred horse racing and the only jockey ever to win the Triple Crown twice, riding Whirlaway to victory in the Kentucky Derby, the Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes in 1941 and repeating the feat in 1948 on Citation. Known as "the Master," Arcaro chalked up 4,779 wins and more than $30 million in earnings during a 31-year career. He began exercising horses at the Latonia Race Course in northern Kentucky after dropping out of school at the age of 13, and he rode in his first race in 1931. Although his first win did not come until a year later, Arcaro soon rose to become one of the most illustrious jockeys of all time, and his mounts were some of the most famous race horses of the mid-20th century. His record-breaking achievements include winning both the Preakness and Belmont Stakes six times--more than any other jockey--and the Kentucky Derby five times, a record he shared with Bill Hartack. He also captured the Jockey Club Gold Cup 10 times. Arcaro's fierce and competitive nature got him into trouble in 1942 when interference with another jockey during a race caused him to be suspended for a year. He returned to the sport a more mature and well-tempered athlete, however, and resumed his spectacular career in the saddle. Arcaro was a founding member and president (1949-61) of the Jockeys' Guild, an organization devoted to the welfare of jockeys. He was inducted into the Racing Hall of Fame in 1958. After his retirement in 1961, he worked as a racing analyst for network television and spent his free time perfecting his golf game. Ashburn, Rich ("Richie"; "Whitey") American baseball player whose 15-year major league career included two National League batting championships, five All-Star honours, and membership in the 1950 pennant-winning Philadelphia Phillies' "Whiz Kids" lineup. Following his playing career, he was a broadcaster with the Phillies for 35 years, and he was voted into the Hall of Fame in 1995 (b. March 19, 1927--d. Sept. 9, 1997). Auerbach, Oscar American pathologist whose research showing that cigarette smoking was causally related to lung cancer, based on his examination of thousands of lung tissue samples, gained national prominence in the first Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health in 1964 (b. Jan. 1, 1905--d. Jan. 15, 1997). Awdry, Wilbert Vere British clergyman and author who created the enormously popular children's series Thomas the Tank Engine; between 1945 and 1972 he wrote 26 stories about the mischievous locomotive, selling more than 50 million books and spawning some 500 products, including videos, toys, and clothing (b. June 15, 1911--d. March 21, 1997). Azcrraga Milmo, Emilio ("El Tigre") , Mexican billionaire who created the Spanish-speaking world's largest media empire by building up his family's radio and television network; his fortune was estimated at $2 billion (b. Sept. 6, 1930--d. April 16, 1997). Baker, La Vern (Delores Williams) , American rhythm-and-blues singer who achieved her greatest success in the 1950s and '60s with such hits as "Tweedle Dee" and "I Cried a Tear"; in 1991 she became the second woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (b. Nov. 11, 1929--d. March 10, 1997). Banda, Hastings Kamuzu Malawian politician (b. c. 1902, near Kasungu, British Central Africa protectorate [now Malawi]--d. Nov. 25, 1997, Johannesburg, S.Af.), was the founder and first president of Malawi. An autocratic leader, Banda was criticized by many other African rulers for his pro-Western policies and his friendly relationship with white-ruled South Africa. His early education was in Scottish missionary schools, and he went to work at the South African gold mines at an early age. He saved enough money to travel to the United States, where he studied at a number of universities and became a physician. He then moved to Scotland, continued to study medicine there, and was made an elder of the Church of Scotland. Banda practiced medicine in Great Britain for a number of years, building a successful practice. Much of his time, however, was devoted to the burgeoning anticolonial movement. By the mid-1950s he had moved back to Africa and become involved in the independence campaign in Nyasaland, the colonial name of Malawi. In 1964 Malawi was granted its independence, and Banda became prime minister. In 1966 Malawi declared itself a republic, and Banda was proclaimed president. His political opponents were killed, imprisoned, or sent into exile, and in 1971 he had himself made president for life. A leader with Victorian social views, Banda outlawed short skirts and pants on women, forbade male tourists with long hair to enter the country, and banned television. By the 1990s his excesses had angered the Malawian people, and in elections in 1994 they voted him out of office. He was then tried for the 1983 murder of four political opponents but was eventually acquitted. Banda was given a state funeral. Bao Dai (Nguyen Vinh Thuy) Vietnamese ruler (b. Oct. 22, 1913, Hue, Vietnam--d. July 31, 1997, Paris, France), was the last reigning emperor of Vietnam from 1926 until his exile in 1945 but exerted little influence over his domain. The son of Emperor Khai Dinh, Thuy was raised and educated in France. After his father died in 1925, he succeeded him to the throne in January 1926 and adopted the name Bao Dai ("Keeper of Greatness"). His duties were ceremonial, however, since the French firmly governed Vietnam. In March 1945 the Japanese staged a coup de force but maintained Bao Dai as a puppet. When the Viet Minh (communists), led by Ho Chi Minh, expelled the Japanese in August of that year, they allowed Bao Dai to remain in an honorary position. In 1946, however, Bao Dai, unhappy with his powerless position, fled to Hong Kong. He returned in 1949 after French control had been reestablished, became temporary premier of the newly independent Vietnam, and was reinstated as sovereign. Known as the "Playboy Emperor," he neglected his few government duties, preferring instead to hunt tigers and collect mistresses. With the end of French rule in 1954, Bao Dai tried to align himself with Premier Ngo Dinh Diem, who was backed by the United States. In 1955, when Diem used his military power and a questionable referendum to declare himself head of state, Bao Dai left Vietnam. In exile on the French Riviera, he lived idly off the wealth he had appropriated during his reign but spent his latter years in more modest circumstances in Paris. Baquero y Daz, Gastn Cuban poet who left his homeland after the 1959 revolution and spent the rest of his life in exile in Spain; only in 1994 did his poems begin to be published once again in Cuba (b. May 4, 1918--d. May 15, 1997). Barakat, Henri Antoine Egyptian filmmaker who made 112 motion pictures during his 55-year career and was known for the "poetic realism" of his works (b. June 11, 1914--d. May 27, 1997). Barbara (Monique Serf) French singer and composer who specialized in singing the songs of Jacques Brel and Georges Brassens in Belgium before she found stardom in France singing many of her own compositions, notably "L'Aigle noir" ("Black Eagle"), "Ma plus belle histoire d'amour, c'est vous" ("You Are My Most Beautiful Love Story"), and "Il pleut sur Nantes" ("It's Raining in Nantes"); her melancholy songs, although poetic, defied translation and made her a celebrity mainly in French-speaking countries. She was also an ardent AIDS activist, dispensing condoms at her series of Paris concerts in 1987, 1990, and 1993 (b. June 9, 1930--d. Nov. 24, 1997). Barbosa de Rosario, Pilar Puerto Rican historian and political adviser who in 1921 became the first woman to teach at the University of Puerto Rico; she was named the commonwealth's official historian in 1993 and served as mentor to generations of politicians, notably from the ruling New Progressive Party (b. July 4, 1897--d. Jan. 22, 1997). Barco Vargas, Virgilio Colombian politician (b. Sept. 17, 1921, Ccuta, Colom.--d. May 20, 1997, Bogot, Colom.), served as president of Colombia from 1986 to 1990 after having won the election by the largest margin in the country's history. During his term his ambitious plans for social reform were interrupted when he was forced to combat the powerful Medelln-based drug cartel, which was waging terror on public officials. Born to a wealthy oil family, Barco attended the National University of Colombia in Bogot and graduated (1943) from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with a degree in civil engineering. He earned (1952) a master's degree in social sciences from Boston University and a doctorate in economics from MIT. His political career began in 1943 when he became a Liberal councillor in the town of Durania, and he later was elected to the lower house of Congress. During a volatile period in the late 1940s and early 1950s, known as La Violencia, in which the Liberal and Conservative factions waged a brutal war against one another and in which hundreds of thousands of people died, Barco was forced into exile in the U.S. He returned to Colombia in 1954 and was instrumental in negotiating an agreement that led to interparty peace. Over the next 40 years, he held a variety of ministerial and diplomatic offices, enjoyed two terms in the Senate (1958-66), and served as ambassador to Britain (1961-62 and 1990-92) and the United States (1977). Barco was appointed mayor of Bogot in 1966 and served as a director of the World Bank from 1969 to 1974. His career peaked in 1986, when he was elected to the presidency. Barco campaigned for social reform, but violence--first by leftist guerrilla groups and then by drug lords--plagued his term as president. Barco had marginal success at controlling guerrilla violence, but his efforts to combat "narcoterrorism," including extradition of drug criminals to the U.S. and seizure of their estates, escalated the violence. Though lauded by the international community for his actions, he was denounced in Colombia. Barco retired from political life in 1992. Barwick, Sir Garfield Edward John Australian barrister who was highly regarded for his service to the Australian government as attorney general, foreign minister, and chief justice of the High Court but whose reputation was clouded by the controversy that ensued when his advice led the governor-general to dismiss the Labor government of Gough Whitlam in 1975 (b. June 22, 1903--d. July 13, 1997). Baseley, (Cyril) Godfrey British radio executive and actor who created the country life radio show "The Archers," the world's longest-running daily serial, and for more than 20 years served as the program's script editor (b. Oct. 2, 1904--d. Feb. 2, 1997). Bauby, Jean-Dominique French journalist whose struggle with "locked-in syndrome," a state of almost total paralysis, was recounted in his critically acclaimed memoir, The Diving Bell and the Butterfly (1997), which he dictated by blinking his left eyelid (b. 1952--d. March 9, 1997). Bell, Bob Lewis American performer who starred (1959-84) as the original fiery-red-haired Bozo the Clown on WGN-TV's "Bozo's Circus," a Chicago program that attracted more than 30 million viewers when the show was aired over cable stations; his side-splitting antics earned Bell induction into the International Clown Hall of Fame in 1996 (b. 1922?--d. Dec. 8, 1997). Bellou, Sotiria Greek singer who was the first woman to have a career performing rebetika songs, Greek urban folk music, which she made her trademark for some 40 years (b. Aug. 29, 1921--d. Aug. 27, 1997). Berlin, Sir Isaiah British lecturer and essayist (b. June 6, 1909, Riga, Latvia [then part of the Russian Empire]--d. Nov. 5, 1997, Oxford, Eng.), produced essays on historical, philosophical, political, and cultural topics; was noted for his support of traditional liberalism; and was credited with founding the discipline of intellectual history. In 1915 his family moved from his birthplace to Russia; they resided in St. Petersburg during the 1917 Revolution and in 1920 settled in England. Berlin studied philosophy at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and remained connected with Oxford for the remainder of his life. During World War II he worked for the British government in Washington, D.C., reporting on U.S. opinion. In 1956 he married the French golf champion Aline de Gunzbourg. Berlin's early years at Oxford were marked by the pursuit of analytic or "pure" philosophy, but after World War II his concerns shifted to political science, political theory, and what came to be classified as intellectual history. Rejecting determinism--the idea that events are determined by prior conditions--Berlin found some value in Carlyle's "great man" theory of history, which holds that the course of history is determined by a few individuals. Berlin's 1957 lecture "Two Concepts of Liberty" introduced his concepts of "negative liberty" (freedom from restraint) and "positive liberty" (freedom viewed as producing a positive good), arguing that society should restrict itself to the former and leave individuals free to pursue the latter on their own. A pluralist, he rejected the idea that there could be a "single solution" to the problem of organizing society. Berlin's best-known essay, The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953), compared "foxes" such as Aristotle and Shakespeare, who "knew many things," with "hedgehogs such as Plato and Dante, who "knew one big thing." Politically, he was an unwavering supporter of Israel and Zionism and was a doctrinaire anticommunist, and his book Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (1939) was one of the first attempts in the noncommunist world to treat the subject objectively. Besides numerous collections of essays, Berlin published such books as The Age of Enlightenment (1956), Four Essays on Liberty (1969), Vico and Herder (1976), and The Magus of the North: J.G. Hamann and the Origins of Modern Irrationalism (1993). He was also celebrated as a brilliant raconteur and admired for his wide-ranging interests. He was honoured in his lifetime as few intellectuals had been, receiving countless awards and prizes, including 23 honorary doctorates. Bernard, Jeffrey Joseph British journalist whose life as a heavy-drinking habitu of London's Soho hangouts was reflected in his weekly "Low Life" column in The Spectator magazine; a play named for the line that often ran when his column failed to appear, Jeffrey Bernard Is Unwell, was a West End hit (b. May 27, 1932--d. Sept. 4, 1997). Berry, Richard American musician who wrote "Louie Louie," a simple rock song that reached the number two spot on American charts, became the second most recorded pop song in history, and was investigated by the FBI on suspicion of having lewd lyrics; he sold the publishing rights for $750 in 1959 but regained them in 1986 (b. April 11, 1935--d. Jan. 23, 1997). Bertil, Prince (Prince Bertil Gustaf Oscar Carl Eugen, duke of Halland) , third son of King Gustaf VI Adolph of Sweden and uncle of King Carl XVI Gustav, was heir presumptive to the Swedish throne from 1973 until 1979, when a change in the laws of succession enabled King Carl Gustav's daughter, Princess Victoria, to be named heir. Prince Bertil was also president of the Swedish Olympic Committee and was chairman of the national sports federation for more than four decades (b. Feb. 28, 1912--d. Jan. 5, 1997). Bertone, Giuseppe ("Nuccio") , Italian car-body designer and head of the influential family-owned automobile-design company that produced models for such notable manufacturers as Fiat, Alfa Romeo, and Lamborghini (b. July 4, 1914--d. Feb. 26, 1997). Bing, Sir Rudolf Franz Joseph British operatic impresario (b. Jan. 9, 1902, Vienna, Austria--d. Sept. 2, 1997, New York, N.Y.), directed the Metropolitan Opera through one of its most turbulent periods (1950-72). The son of a Viennese industrialist, Bing grew up in a musical household. Although he studied voice in his teens, he soon started working for a bookstore that expanded its business into concert and opera management. He moved to Berlin in 1927 and became assistant manager of the Darmstadt Opera a year later. He followed opera director Carl Ebert first to the Charlottenburg (Berlin) Opera in 1931 and then, as the Nazi era dawned, to Glyndebourne, Eng. During World War II Bing worked in a department store; he later claimed that his experiences soothing hysterical women gave him insight into how to deal with sopranos. After cofounding (1946) the Edinburgh Festival, Bing moved (1949) to New York City. Following a year of observation, he assumed full control of the Metropolitan Opera and revolutionized opera production, in part, by hiring eminent directors from theatre and film, such as Peter Brook, Tyrone Guthrie, and Alfred Lunt. Though Bing became notorious for his quarrels with American soprano Maria Callas and Danish tenor Lauritz Melchior, he engaged such great international stars as Renata Tebaldi, Jussi Bjrling, and Franco Corelli. In 1955 Bing hired Marian Anderson to sing Ulrica in Un ballo in maschera, the first time that a black singer had appeared at the Met in a major role. Besides contending with the crippling strikes of 1961 and 1969, he supervised the Met's move in 1966 from its theatre on 39th Street to Lincoln Center. One year before he retired, Bing hired James Levine as the company's artistic director. Some critics held that Bing relied too heavily upon Italian Romantic operas. Renowned for his autocratic methods as well as his wit, Bing reportedly remarked, "Don't be misled; beneath that cold, austere, severe exterior, there beats a heart of stone." He was knighted in 1971 and wrote two memoirs, 5,000 Nights at the Opera (1972) and A Knight at the Opera (1981). In later years he suffered from Alzheimer's disease. Blos, Peter German-born American child psychoanalyst who was known as "Mr. Adolescence" as a result of his research into the problems of teenagers and his theories describing their struggles between wanting to break free of their parents and desiring to remain dependent (b. Feb. 2, 1904--d. June 12, 1997). Bremner, William J. ("Billy") Scottish association football (soccer) player whose skill, inspiring leadership (usually as captain), and fierce determination made him vital to the success of Leeds United (1959-76), Hull City (1976-78), and Scotland (54 caps, 1965-75); as tough off the field as on, in 1975 he was banned from international play for life after an altercation in a night club. He later became manager of Leeds (1985-88) and Doncaster Rovers (1978-85, 1989-92) (b. Dec. 9, 1942--d. Dec. 7, 1997). Brennan, William Joseph, Jr. U.S. Supreme Court justice (b. April 25, 1906, Newark, N.J.--d. July 24, 1997, Arlington, Va.), was considered the prototypical liberal interpreter of the Constitution during his tenure (1956-90) with the tribunal. Brennan was the author of some 1,350 Supreme Court decisions, second only to Justice William O. Douglas. The son of an Irish laborer and union activist, Brennan adopted his father's social vision. At Harvard Law School he studied under Felix Frankfurter (associate justice, 1939-62), who was a proponent of judicial self-restraint and with whom he came to bitterly disagree over political redistricting. After law school Brennan became a highly successful labour lawyer. In 1942 he joined the army; he was awarded the Legion of Merit for resolving labour disputes in the military. Returning to his law firm in 1946, he became an advocate of court reform. In 1949 he was appointed to the Superior Court, and he quickly advanced to the New Jersey Supreme Court. Brennan was widely praised for improving the flow of court cases, and he caught the attention of U.S. Pres. Dwight Eisenhower, who appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1956. Brennan quickly rose to the occasion. In Baker v. Carr (1962), he wrote the majority opinion that the federal courts would thereafter supervise fair apportionment of legislative seats. Chief Justice Earl Warren later called this "the most vital decision" of his tenure. In the landmark 1964 ruling New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, Brennan considerably expanded the freedom of the press by ruling that public figures could collect damages for publication of false statements only if "actual malice" could be shown. In Goldberg v. Kelly (1970), Brennan broadened the right of due process by ruling that a state violates the 14th Amendment if it cuts off an individual's welfare benefits without a hearing. Citing the right to privacy, Brennan ruled in Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) that a state could not criminalize the distribution of contraceptives to unmarried individuals. A champion of minority causes, Brennan ruled in 1979 that private affirmative action programs did not violate the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Though he considered the death penalty "cruel and unusual," he was never able to achieve a majority on this issue. In 1990 he authored United States v. Eichman, which held that flag burning is protected speech under the First Amendment. After suffering a stroke, he retired that same year. Bristol, Horace American photojournalist whose idea for a collaboration with John Steinbeck on a chronicle of the life of migrant workers led to Steinbeck's novel The Grapes of Wrath; Bristol's photos were used as an aid in the casting of the 1940 film version of the novel (b. Nov. 16, 1908--d. Aug. 4, 1997). Bryce, Robert Broughton Canadian public servant who served three prime ministers as secretary to the Cabinet and was influential in the formation of economic policy for some three decades (b. Feb. 27, 1910--d. July 30, 1997). Buckley, Jeffrey Scott ("Jeff") , American folk, rock, and pop singer and songwriter whose multioctave voice was compared to that of his father, the late Tim Buckley; through his one full album, Grace, two minialbums, and performances on other artists' albums as well as in concert, he attracted a devoted international following (b. Nov. 17, 1966--d. May 29, 1997). Burhoe, Ralph Wendell American educator and writer who was both a theologian and a scientist and spent his career attempting to merge those fields; he founded several organizations toward that end, and in 1980 he was the first American to win the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion (b. June 21, 1911--d. May 8, 1997). Burnum, Burnum (Henry James Penrith) Australian Aboriginal political activist who often conducted his battle for Aboriginal rights by performing flamboyant stunts; his best-known one involved claiming England for Aborigines by planting an Aboriginal flag atop the white cliffs of Dover (b. January 1936--d. Aug. 17, 1997). Burroughs, William Seward American writer (b. Feb. 5, 1914, St. Louis, Mo.--d. Aug. 2, 1997, Lawrence, Kan.), was the author of the notorious avant-garde novel Naked Lunch (1959). After graduating from Harvard University in 1936, Burroughs moved to New York City, where in the early 1940s he associated with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg (q.v.), Neal Cassady, and others with whom he would be identified as a member of the Beat Generation. During this period Burroughs developed a heroin addiction that lasted into the 1960s. Despite his open homosexuality, he entered into a common-law marriage with Joan Vollmer in 1946; five years later, attempting a drunken stunt during a party in Mexico City, he shot and killed her. He fled Mexico and was never tried for the offense. Though ostensibly an accident, Burroughs was tormented by the idea that subconsciously he had desired her death; his remorse spurred him to devote himself to writing. His most famous novel, Naked Lunch, simulates nightmarish heroin-induced hallucinations through a variety of experimental techniques, including lack of narrative, stream of consciousness, and random ordering of story parts. The book was acclaimed (and also condemned) as a disturbing representation of existential alienation. Though Naked Lunch features explicit depictions of sex and violence, a legal attempt to ban it in the United States for obscenity failed, which cleared the way for more open treatment of such subject matter in literature. His next novels--The Soft Machine (1961), The Ticket That Exploded (1962), and Nova Express (1964)--employed his "cut-up" technique, in which quotations from unrelated sources were cut and randomly inserted into his own text. Few of his subsequent writings attracted significant attention. In later life Burroughs became an all-purpose avant-garde icon, appearing with rock musicians and in television advertisements and movies. Caen, Herbert Eugene ("Herb") , American newspaper columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle, 1938-50 and 1958-97, and San Francisco Examiner, 1950-58; his longtime encomiums on San Francisco, characterized by pithy wordplay and, later, nostalgia, earned him a Pulitzer Prize in 1996 (b. April 3, 1916--d. Feb. 1, 1997). Callado, Antnio Brazilian novelist and leading journalist whose masterpiece, Quarup (1967), tells the story of an idealistic priest who undergoes a religious and political transformation in light of events in Brazil, notably the advent of liberation theology and the 1964 military coup (b. Jan. 26, 1917--d. Jan. 28, 1997). Calvin, Melvin American biochemist (b. April 8, 1911, St. Paul, Minn.--d. Jan. 8, 1997, Berkeley, Calif.), studied the structure and behaviour of organic molecules and was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for having determined the steps by which carbon is converted to carbohydrates, an important mechanism in the process of photosynthesis. Calvin, who earned his Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota in 1935, began investigating the photosynthetic process in the late 1940s while serving as director of the bioorganic chemistry group at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. Taking advantage of newly developed tools--chromatography and the radioactive isotope carbon-14--to carry out his experiments, he fed radioactive carbon dioxide to the green alga Chlorella and followed its path through a cycle of reactions, now called the Calvin cycle. After devoting almost 15 years to elucidating this pathway, Calvin served as director of the Laboratory of Chemical Biodynamics at Berkeley (1960-80), where he turned his attention to conjectures such as the origins of life on Earth and the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe. He also conducted research into the development of alternative fuels. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Calvin received the National Medal of Science (1989) and the Priestley Medal of the American Chemical Society (1978), and he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences (1954). Over the years he was the author of more than 500 papers and a number of books, including The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis (1957; with J.A. Bassham) and Following the Trail of Light: A Scientific Odyssey (1992). Carcani, Adil Albanian politician who served (1981-91) as the last communist prime minister of Albania during a political career that spanned nearly five decades and included numerous offices; in 1994 he was placed under house arrest for abuse of power (b. May 4, 1922--d. Oct. 13, 1997). Carpenter, Thelma American performer who was a big-band singer during the 1930s and '40s and performed on Broadway in the '40s and '50s but then disappeared from show business until 1968, when she became Pearl Bailey's understudy in Hello, Dolly!; she subsequently went on for Bailey more than 100 times and thereafter had a successful stage, film, and television career (b. Jan. 15, 1920--d. May 15, 1997). Castillo Martnez, Heberto Mexican political leader of the leftist opposition to the long-entrenched Institutional Revolutionary Party; he was imprisoned for more than two years for his support of the 1968 student movement and was one of the founders of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (b. Aug. 23, 1928--d. April 5, 1997). Cato, (Robert) Milton Caribbean politician who served, 1979-84, as the first prime minister of St. Vincent and the Grenadines after the country achieved independence (b. June 3, 1915--d. Feb. 10, 1997). Chambers, George Trinidadian politician who served (1981-86) as prime minister of Trinidad and Tobago and was faced with the difficult task of diversifying the economy following the oil boom of the 1970s. Although his policies were unpopular, many credited him with the country's continuing economic success (b. Oct. 4, 1928--d. Nov. 4, 1997). Chaplin, Saul (Saul Caplan) American songwriter and Hollywood musical director who won three Academy Awards for best scoring of a musical picture for An American in Paris, West Side Story, and Seven Brides for Seven Brothers; Chaplin collaborated with Sammy Cahn before striking out on his own and composing such hits as "The Anniversary Song," "Until the Real Thing Comes Along," and "Bei Mir Bist du Schoen," a mainstay of the Andrews Sisters' repertoire (b. Feb. 19, 1912--d. Nov. 15, 1997). Cheatham, Adolphus Anthony ("Doc") , American jazz trumpeter whose 70-year international career took him from playing in bands--working with such notables as Cab Calloway, Benny Goodman, and Eddie Heywood--and backing such singers as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday to a solo career, begun when he was in his 60s, that brought him his greatest popularity (b. June 13, 1905--d. June 2, 1997). Cioaba, Ion Romanian self-proclaimed king of all Roma (Gypsies) everywhere and a champion of their rights (b. 1935?--d. Feb. 23, 1997). Clarke, Shirley Brimberg American motion picture director of independent films whose gritty cinema verit works in the 1950s and '60s, including The Connection, The Cool World, and Portrait of Jason, tackled such controversial topics as heroin addiction, gang membership, and male prostitution (b. Oct. 2, 1925--d. Sept. 23, 1997). Coffin, Tristram American journalist who had a nearly 50-year career that encompassed reporting for a newspaper and on radio, writing books, penning a syndicated column, and, from 1968, publishing the newsletter that went on to become the Washington Spectator (b. July 25, 1912--d. May 28, 1997). Compton, Denis Charles Scott British cricketer (b. May 23, 1918, Hendon, Middlesex, Eng.--d. April 23, 1997, Windsor, Berkshire, Eng.), was one of the 20th century's most gifted and audacious batsmen, admired for his mastery of the sweeping stroke and his "cheeky schoolboy" spirit both on and off the field. In a first-class career that spanned almost three decades (1936-64), Compton scored 38,942 runs (average, 51.85) and 123 centuries, including 5,807 runs (avg. 50.06) and 17 centuries in 78 Test matches. Although he batted right-handed, as an occasionally devastating left-arm spin bowler he took 622 first-class wickets (avg. 32.27), including 25 in Tests. "Compo" made his first-class debut for Middlesex in 1936, and the next season he was selected for his first Test appearance, in which he scored a 65 against New Zealand. He played in international sports matches while serving in the military in India during World War II and returned home with a boyish enthusiasm that delighted war-weary English fans. In 1947, at the pinnacle of his career, he scored 3,816 runs (avg. 90.85) and 18 centuries, both single-season records that still stood at the time of his death. In 1948-49, playing for the Marylebone Cricket Club against North-Eastern Transvaal in South Africa, he scored 300 runs in 181 minutes, the fastest-ever triple-hundred in first-class cricket. An outstanding all-around athlete, he also played association football (soccer) for Arsenal from 1936 until 1950, when knee surgery ended his football career shortly after Arsenal won the FA Cup. Compton was cricket correspondent for the Sunday Express from 1950, a sports commentator for BBC television from 1958, and the author of numerous books. He made his last Test appearance in 1956 and was made C.B.E. in 1958. A celebrated series of postwar Brylcreem hair-dressing advertisements made the dashing Compton a familiar face, even outside sporting circles. Cooke, Jack Kent Canadian-born American businessman and sports team owner who amassed a fortune through ownership of broadcast media companies, newspapers, and real estate, created the closed-circuit television megabroadcast, and went on to own such properties as New York City's Chrysler Building and the Los Angeles Lakers and the Washington Redskins sports teams (b. Oct. 25, 1912--d. April 6, 1997). Copeland, Johnny Clyde American blues singer and guitarist who performed for over 25 years before becoming nationally and internationally known in the 1980s; his performance on the album Showdown! won a Grammy award in 1986 (b. March 27, 1937--d. July 3, 1997). Cousteau, Jacques-Yves French oceanographer, filmmaker, and inventor (b. June 11, 1910, Saint-Andr-de-Cubzac, France--d. June 25, 1997, Paris, France), popularized the study of marine environments through numerous books, films, and television programs that chronicled his undersea investigations. Cousteau, not formally trained as a scientist, was drawn to undersea exploration by his love both of the ocean and of diving. After graduating from France's naval academy in 1933, he was commissioned a second lieutenant. His plans to become a navy pilot were undermined by an almost fatal automobile accident in which both of his arms were broken. During his convalescence he discovered goggle diving, and his fascination with the sport inspired him to design, with mile Gagnan, the aqualung, also known as scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), which became commercially available in 1946. Cousteau helped to invent many other tools useful to oceanographers, including the diving saucer, a small, easily maneuverable submarine for seafloor exploration, and a number of underwater cameras. He served in World War II as a gunnery officer in France and was also a member of the French Resistance. He later was awarded the Legion of Honour for his espionage work. Cousteau's experiments with underwater filmmaking began during the war, and when the war ended, he continued this work by founding and heading the French navy's Undersea Research Group. To expand his work in marine exploration, he founded numerous marketing, manufacturing, engineering, and research organizations, which were incorporated (1973) as the Cousteau Group. In 1950 Cousteau converted a British minesweeper into the Calypso, an oceanographic research ship aboard which he and his crew carried out numerous expeditions. He gained international recognition with the publication of The Silent World (1953), the first of many books. Two years later he adapted the book into a documentary film that won both the Palme d'Or at the 1956 Cannes International Film Festival and an Academy Award in 1957, one of three Oscars his films received. Retiring from the navy in 1956 with the rank of captain, Cousteau served as director of the Oceanographic Institute and Museum, Monaco. In the early 1960s he conducted experiments in underwater living in undersea laboratories called Conshelf I, II, and III. Cousteau produced and starred in many television programs, including the U.S. series "The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau" (1968-76). In 1974 he formed the Cousteau Society, a nonprofit environmental group dedicated to marine conservation. His last book, Man, the Octopus, and the Orchid, was published posthumously. Crowe, Dame Sylvia British landscape architect who created designs for gardens at nuclear power stations, colleges, churchyards, reservoirs, office buildings, and new towns and wrote a number of books on the subject; she was created C.B.E. in 1967 and advanced to D.B.E. in 1973 (b. Sept. 15, 1901--d. June 30, 1997). Crump, Neville Franklin British racehorse trainer and one of the most successful steeplechase trainers after World War II; he logged three victories in the Grand National and won five Scottish Grand Nationals, two Welsh Nationals, and three Whitbread Gold Cups, among others (b. Dec. 27, 1910--d. Jan. 18, 1997). Damio, Frei (Pio Gianotti) , Italian-born Brazilian Roman Catholic monk who walked from town to town in northeastern Brazil preaching to poor villagers, who considered him a saint capable of performing miracles (b. Nov. 5, 1898--d. May 31, 1997). Danielian, Leon American ballet dancer who had an inimitable stage presence and masterful technique and achieved his greatest fame with the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo during the 1940s and '50s; in the '60s he became a highly respected teacher (b. Oct. 31, 1920--d. March 8, 1997). Danilova, Alexandra (Aleksandra Dionisyevna Danilova; "Choura") Russian-born American ballerina and teacher (b. Nov. 20, 1903, Peterhof [now Petrodvorets], Russia--d. July 13, 1997, New York, N.Y.), possessed charm, vivacity, and flair, attributes that enhanced her excellent balletic technique and versatility. She captivated audiences while starring in such signature roles as Odette in Swan Lake, Swanilda in Copplia, the cancan dancer in La Boutique fantasque, the street dancer in Le Beau Danube, and the glove seller in Gat Parisienne. Danilova was trained in St. Petersburg at the Imperial Ballet and the Soviet State Ballet schools and joined the Mariinsky Ballet (later renamed the Kirov Ballet), becoming soloist in 1922. In the summer of 1924, she joined a small ensemble led by George Balanchine for a tour of Western Europe. The group did not return to Russia, and in December they joined Sergey Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Danilova performed with that company until it disbanded following Diaghilev's death (1929). After dancing in operas and appearing (1931-32) in the stage musical Waltzes from Vienna in London's West End, she joined (1933) Les Ballets Russes de Monte-Carlo and made her American debut. During the following years Danilova toured extensively with that company and the various successive Ballets Russes, as well as such companies as Sadler's Wells Ballet and, in 1954-56, her own Great Moments of Ballet. After her final ballet performance, in 1957 at a gala honouring her at New York City's Metropolitan Opera House, she returned to the stage for the Broadway musical Oh, Captain! In addition, Danilova choreographed for operas and made lecture tours, and in 1964 she joined the faculty of the School of American Ballet, where she became a highly respected and beloved teacher. She remained there until 1989, staging ballet excerpts for the school's workshop productions and full-length ballets for such companies as the New York City Ballet. Danilova appeared in the motion picture The Turning Point (1977) in a role based largely on herself and, with Holly Brubach, published her memoirs, Choura (1986). In 1989 she was a recipient of the Kennedy Center Honors. Davis, Kingsley

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