Meaning of YEAR IN REVIEW 1999: OBITUARY in English

Abacha, Sani Nigerian military leader (b. Sept. 20, 1943, Kano, Nigeria--d. June 8, 1998, Abuja, Nigeria), participated in the overthrow of three successive military governments before gaining control of the country himself in 1993. Having entered the army at age 18, Abacha was educated at military schools in Nigeria, England, and the United States and rose to brigadier by 1980. He participated in the ouster of Pres. Alhaji Shehu Shagari (December 1983) and was chosen to announce the new leadership of Mohammed Buhari, who named Abacha to the Supreme Military Council. In August 1985, however, Abacha helped to overthrow Buhari's government and install Ibrahim Babangida, who named Abacha army chief of staff (1985), chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989), and minister of defense (1990). When Babangida annulled the 1993 general election--in which Moshood Abiola (q.v.) was the apparent winner--Abacha took advantage of public outrage to depose Babangida. In late 1993 Abacha declared himself president and promised restoration of democracy. His presidency, however, soon turned into a ruthless dictatorship. Under his rule Nigerians saw profits from the country's vast oil supply dwindle as their leader's own wealth grew. Abacha siphoned off as much as $4 billion, and those who spoke out against him were either executed or jailed. He eliminated all elected institutions and assemblies, fired a significant portion of the military, hired a personal security force of approximately 2,000 men, and took control of the press. Though he sent troops to restore democracy in Liberia and Sierra Leone, he was unwilling to support it at home. The elections he had promised for 1996 did not take place. One by one the parties contesting the elections scheduled for August 1998 declared Abacha their candidate for president. He died following an apparent heart attack. Abiola, Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Nigerian executive, financier, and politician (b. Aug. 24, 1937, Abeokuta, Nigeria--d. July 7, 1998, Abuja, Nigeria), was one of the richest magnates in Africa and popularly regarded as the leader of the pro-democracy movement in Nigeria. He had been imprisoned since 1994 after winning the 1993 presidential election. Abiola, who was born in poverty, attended the University of Glasgow, Scot., on scholarship. He became an accountant for ITT Nigeria in 1968; by 1971 he was its chief executive and chairman, posts he held until 1988. During that time he amassed an immense private fortune and became owner of a publishing house, a newspaper syndicate, and an airline. With his luxurious, flamboyant lifestyle--which included marrying more wives (21 at the time of his death) than sanctioned by Islam--Abiola became a popular public figure; he also made generous donations for building schools. After decades of nearly uninterrupted military rule, democratic elections were held in Nigeria in 1993. Abiola, running as the presidential candidate of the Social Democratic Party, won almost 60% of the vote. The ruling junta, threatened by Abiola's popularity, annulled the election at the instigation of Gen. Ibrahim Babangida. This provoked a political crisis that remained unresolved. Abiola agitated publicly for the presidency he had won, which led to his 1994 arrest on a charge of treason. During his imprisonment Abiola was deprived of outside news and subjected to solitary confinement and abuse that included negligent medical care. His release seemed imminent following the death of Gen. Sani Abacha (q.v.) in June 1998 and a visit to Nigeria by UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan made largely on Abiola's behalf. However, Abiola died suddenly under mysterious circumstances, arousing suspicions of foul play. Although heart attack was officially declared to be the cause of death, that conclusion was greeted with skepticism by many. Abrahams, William Miller American writer and editor whose three-decade-long editorship of the annual volumes of O. Henry Award-winning stories brought the short story a steady growth in interest and respect (b. Jan. 23, 1919, Boston, Mass.--d. June 2, 1998, Hillsborough, Calif.). Abzug, Bella (Bella Savitzky) American lawyer and politician (b. July 24, 1920, New York, N.Y.--d. March 31, 1998, New York), variously identified as "Battling Bella" and "Mother Courage," was a quintessential progressive known for her groundbreaking roles as peace activist, feminist, environmentalist, and early advocate for gay rights. Abzug was the daughter of Russian- Jewish immigrants. She earned degrees from Hunter College of the City University of New York (B.A., 1942) and Columbia University Law School, New York City (LL.B., 1947). It was during her years as an attorney (1947-70), when few women were practicing law, that she began wearing her signature wide-brimmed hats to ensure that her clients and colleagues did not assume she was a secretary. She acted as chief defense attorney for Willie McGee, an African-American man convicted and eventually executed for raping a white woman in Mississippi, defended victims of Sen. Joseph McCarthy's anticommunist witch-hunts, and helped draft legislation for the 1954 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act. To fight the U.S. government's plans to resume nuclear-weapons testing, she founded the Women Strike for Peace in 1961, and to protest the Vietnam War, she led the Democratic Party's "Dump Johnson" movement and supported Sen. Eugene McCarthy in his 1968 bid for the presidency. Along with Gloria Steinem and Betty Friedan, Abzug was in the forefront of the feminist movement and was an early advocate for equal rights for women, abortion rights, and child-care legislation. She successfully ran for Congress in 1970 from Manhattan's 19th district with the slogan "This woman's place is in the House--the House of Representatives." On her first day in Congress (Jan. 21, 1971), she introduced a motion calling for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam, and she later used a little-known procedural tactic to force Pres. Richard Nixon's administration to release the top-secret Pentagon Papers. She was also the first member of Congress to call for Nixon's impeachment. After serving three terms in the House, she lost a Senate race to Daniel P. Moynihan in 1977. Firmly committed to women's empowerment, she founded several organizations, including the National Women's Political Caucus and the International Women's Environment and Development Association, and she participated in the UN's Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. Her book Bella! was published in 1972, and Gender Gap: Bella Abzug's Guide to Political Power for American Women, co-written with Mim Kelber, appeared in 1984. Addison, John Mervyn British composer who specialized for more than 40 years in writing effective, lightly orchestrated scores for motion pictures and television programs and incidental music for the theatre. Among Addison's most admired films were Seven Days to Noon (1950), Tom Jones (1963), for which he won an Academy Award, the Oscar-nominated Sleuth (1971), and the Bafta-winning A Bridge Too Far (1977). His television work included the 21-hour miniseries "Centennial" and "Murder, She Wrote," the theme for which earned him an Emmy award (b. March 16, 1920, Cobham, Surrey, Eng.--d. Dec. 7, 1998, Bennington, Vt.). Ajit (Hamid Ali Khan) Indian actor whose charming villainy and outrageous double entendres made him a national folk hero during a film career that spanned several decades in Bollywood, the nickname for Mumbai (Bombay), India's film capital (b. Jan. 27, 1922, Golconda, India--d. Oct. 21, 1998, Hyderabad, India). Alfaro, Emilio Argentine actor and director whose highly regarded career lasted nearly 50 years; from 1989 he served as director of the Teatro General San Martn in Buenos Aires (b. Jan. 20, 1933, Buenos Aires, Arg.--d. July 18, 1998, Buenos Aires). Allin, the Right Rev. John Maury American religious leader who was the Episcopal Church's 23rd presiding bishop, serving from 1974 to 1986; he was active in efforts to raise money for the rebuilding of over 100 firebombed black churches but was unwilling to support the ordination of women (b. April 22, 1921, Helena, Ark.--d. March 6, 1998, Jackson, Miss.). Ambler, Eric British author and screenwriter (b. June 28, 1909, London, Eng.--d. Oct. 22, 1998, London), drastically transformed the traditionally musty spy thriller with a series of six novels. In contrast to earlier British spy stories, in which xenophobic, romantic heroes defeated vast conspiracies to dominate the world, Ambler wrote of ordinary educated Englishmen thrust by chance or innocent curiosity into danger; Ambler's villains, too, were realistically drawn and were frequently violent fascists and Nazis. The novels, which were set in continental Europe, were permeated with the emotional atmosphere of the impending world war. Ambler's careful writing, intricate plots, and growing skill at creating vivid characterizations culminated in the sustained tension of The Mask of Dimitrios (1939; U.S. title, A Coffin for Dimitrios) and Journey into Fear (1940), both later made into memorable films. Ambler, the son of music-hall entertainers, studied engineering at the University of London and completed his first novel, The Dark Frontier (1936), while employed as an advertising writer. During World War II he wrote training films for the British army, a job that led to a postwar career as a screenwriter, adapting films from novels; he was nominated for an Academy Award for his script The Cruel Sea (1953). A onetime Marxist sympathizer, he later attacked Stalinism in Judgment on Deltchev (1951), which marked his return to thrillers. He also began traveling widely, and subsequent novels were often set in the Middle East or East Asia, including The Light of Day (1962), which was adapted to the big screen as Topkapi (1964), and The Levanter (1972), a film about a terrorist plot against Israel; his much-praised Doctor Frigo (1974) was set on a Caribbean island. For a time Ambler lived in the U.S., where he met his second wife, film producer Joan Harrison, before finally settling in the late 1960s in Switzerland. His fiction was a major influence on such writers as Graham Greene, John le Carr, and Len Deighton. Ametistov, Ernest Mikhailovich Russian judge who from 1991 was a member of the Constitutional Court, Russia's highest court, and as such was a liberal champion of human rights and democratic freedoms (b. May 17, 1934, Leningrad, U.S.S.R.--d. Sept. 7, 1998, near Moscow, Russia). Amory, Cleveland American writer and animal rights advocate (b. Sept. 2, 1917, Nahant, Mass.--d. Oct. 14, 1998, New York, N.Y.), was the author of a number of best-selling books and founder (1967) of the Fund for Animals, a New York-based animal-protection agency, which he served as unpaid president for 31 years. Amory's writing career began in his senior year in college when he became president of the Harvard Crimson. He graduated in 1939 and, after a brief term as a newspaper reporter, became the youngest editor ever hired by the Saturday Evening Post. During World War II he served in army intelligence. After the war he produced three humorous social histories: The Proper Bostonians (1947), The Last Resorts (1952), and Who Killed Society? (1960). In the early 1950s Amory began an 11-year term as a social commentator on "The Today Show." From 1963 to 1976 he was the chief critic for TV Guide and also wrote a column for the Saturday Review and a daily radio essay, "Curmudgeon at Large." In his book Man Kind? Our Incredible War on Wildlife (1974), Amory detailed inhumane hunting practices. Inspired by his cat Polar Bear, he wrote a trilogy: The Cat Who Came for Christmas (1988), The Cat and the Curmudgeon (1990), and The Best Cat Ever (1993). His most recent book, Ranch of Dreams (1997), detailed the lives of abused and unwanted animals at the Black Beauty Ranch in Texas, an animal sanctuary that he was instrumental in establishing. Ashmore, Harry Scott American editor who, as executive editor of the Arkansas Gazette, won a Pulitzer Prize for editorials he wrote in support of integration of a Little Rock high school in 1957; he later served as editor in chief of the Encyclopdia Britannica and as president of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions (b. July 27, 1916, Greenville, S.C.--d. Jan. 20, 1998, Santa Barbara, Calif.). Aury, Dominique (Anne Desclos) French writer and translator who was a respected member of the literary establishment but gained her greatest fame in 1994 when it was confirmed that she was the author, under the pseudonym Pauline Rage, of the sensational erotic best-seller Histoire d'O, published in 1954 and later translated into at least 20 languages (b. Sept. 23, 1907, Rochefort, France--d. April 30, 1998, Paris, France). Autry, (Orvon) Gene American entertainer (b. Sept. 29, 1907, Tioga, Texas--d. Oct. 2, 1998, North Hollywood, Calif.), gained fame in motion pictures as the first American singing cowboy and used his earnings to amass a fortune in a business empire that comprised hotels, oil wells, broadcasting stations, a cattle ranch, a flying school, music-publishing companies, and the California Angels major league baseball team. Rivaled only by Roy Rogers (q.v.), he appeared in nearly 100 "horse operas," often accompanied by his horse, Champion, and recorded more than 600 songs--a great number of which he wrote or co-wrote and among which were his signature "Back in the Saddle Again"; his first gold record, "That Silver-Haired Daddy of Mine"; and the enduring hits "Here Comes Santa Claus," "Frosty the Snowman," and "Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer." Autry began singing when he was a young boy, and when he was 17 and working as a railway telegrapher in Oklahoma, he happened to meet Will Rogers in the office, sang for him, and was encouraged to pursue a singing career. He became Oklahoma's yodeling cowboy on a Tulsa radio station in 1928 and in the early 1930s performed on the weekly radio show "The National Barn Dance." From 1939 he appeared on the "Melody Ranch" radio show. Autry's first movie appearance was in 1934 in a small role in In Old Santa Fe, and he followed that with the serial Phantom Empire the same year. His first starring role came the next year in Tumbling Tumbleweeds. In 1937 Autry became the top-ranked western star, and he retained that spot through 1943; he was a top-10 box-office favourite in 1940-42. Following military service in World War II, he formed his own production company and resumed his filming career, and from 1950 to 1956 he starred on a weekly television show. Autry then began concentrating more on his business interests. In 1988 he opened the Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum in Los Angeles to house his collection of western art and memorabilia. Badgro, Morris Hiram ("Red") American football player and coach who was an offensive and defensive end for the New York Giants from 1930 to 1935, during which time he was on four All-Pro teams, and played for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1936; he was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1981 (b. Dec. 1, 1902, Orillia, Wash.--d. July 13, 1998, Kent, Wash.). Ballestrero, Anastasio Alberto Cardinal Italian Roman Catholic priest who served as archbishop of Turin from 1977 to 1989 and as such was custodian of the Shroud of Turin; he allowed scientific dating tests to be performed on the shroud and later made the announcement that it dated from the Middle Ages and thus was not the burial cloth of Jesus Christ (b. Oct. 3, 1913, Genoa, Italy--d. June 21, 1998, La Spezia, Italy). Barker, Louisa Dupont ("Blue Lu") American blues singer whose trademark style combined her innocent girlish voice with bawdy songs (b. Nov. 13, 1913, New Orleans, La.--d. May 7, 1998, New Orleans). Barton, Sir Derek Harold Richard British chemist (b. Sept. 8, 1918, Gravesend, Kent, Eng.--d. March 16, 1998, College Station, Texas), altered the landscape of modern chemistry by originating the fields of conformational analysis and stereochemistry. He showed how differences in the spatial structure, or conformation, of molecules relate to differences in their reactivity and how the differences can be calculated by analyzing the conformation of the molecules. In 1950 Barton presented a theory that described organic molecules as having preferred three-dimensional forms that determine their chemical properties, a revolutionary concept that soon became a basic principle of modern chemistry. For this he was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, along with Odd Hassel of Norway, who had earlier shown how chemically identical molecules can have different conformations. Barton left the family carpentry business to study chemistry at Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London (B.S., 1940; Ph.D., 1942). After wartime service in military intelligence, he returned to Imperial College to teach physical chemistry, publishing calculations of the preferred three-dimensional shape of organic molecules. While a visiting professor (1949-50) at Harvard University, he presented a landmark four-page paper on conformational analysis, The Conformation of the Steroid Nucleus (1950), which explained the unusual reaction rates of steroids and related isomers. His findings won quick acceptance and were soon incorporated into basic science curricula. He returned to London as a reader at Birkbeck College (1950-55), where he uncovered the properties of phenol oxidative coupling and investigated how poppies produce morphine. During his career he also examined new chemical reactions and syntheses, experimenting with santonin, aldosterone, sulfur, photochemistry, fluorination, penicillin, and free radicals. After a brief stint at the University of Glasgow, Scot. (1955-57), he returned (1957) to Imperial College as chemistry chairman and remained there until 1978, when he became director of the Institute for the Chemistry of Natural Substances, Gil-sur-Yvette, France. In 1986 he joined the faculty at Texas A&M University, and at the time of his death, he was working on the oxidation of saturated hydrocarbons. Barton, who was knighted in 1972, was the author of more than 1,000 scientific papers, owner of many patents, mentor to hundreds of students, and a valued scientific consultant. Bassett, John White Hughes Canadian journalist and broadcasting executive who at various times owned the Toronto Telegram, was part owner of the Toronto Maple Leafs hockey team and the Toronto Argonauts football team, and was granted Canada's first license for a privately owned television station, CFTO; he later helped form and became chairman of Baton Broadcasting Inc., and CFTO became the flagship of the CTV network (b. Aug. 25, 1915, Ottawa, Ont.--d. April 27, 1998, Toronto, Ont.). Bates, Clayton ("Peg Leg") American tap dancer who, despite having lost a leg in an accident when he was 12 years old, enjoyed a performing career that lasted some seven decades and saw him in vaudeville, clubs, stage musicals, and motion pictures and on television, including 21 appearances on "The Ed Sullivan Show," a record for tap dancers (b. Oct. 11, 1907, Fountain Inn, S.C.--d. Dec. 6, 1998, Fountain Inn). Belanger, Mark Henry ("Blade") American baseball player who won eight Gold Gloves and played in four World Series during his 16 seasons (1965-81) as a fielding shortstop with the Baltimore Orioles (b. June 8, 1944, Pittsfield, Mass.--d. Oct. 6, 1998, New York, N.Y.). Beriosova, Svetlana Lithuanian-born British ballerina (b. Sept. 24, 1932, Kaunas, Lithuania--d. Nov. 10, 1998, London, Eng.), was one of the Royal Ballet of England's major ballerinas for more than 20 years. Known for her eloquent and elegant classical style, she created such leading roles as the Fairy in Kenneth MacMillan's Le Baiser de la fe, Princess Belle Rose in John Cranko's The Prince of the Pagodas, the title role in Cranko's Antigone, and Lady Elgar in Frederick Ashton's Enigma Variations in addition to dancing such traditional classical roles as Odette-Odile in Swan Lake, Aurora in The Sleeping Beauty, and the title role in Giselle. Beriosova was the daughter of Lithuanian State Opera dancer and ballet master Nicolas Beriosoff and grew up in the various companies for which he worked. In 1941 she began appearing in children's roles with the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo, including Clara in The Nutcracker, and in 1947 she made her professional debut with the Ottawa Ballet. Later in 1947 she joined the Cuevas Grand Ballet de Monte Carlo as an apprentice, and the following year she moved to England and joined the Metropolitan Ballet. Upon that company's closure at the end of 1949, Beriosova was invited to join the Sadler's Wells Theatre Ballet as a principal dancer. Notable among her leading roles there was Swanilda in Copplia, which allowed her to showcase her rarely used comic talent. In 1952 Beriosova transferred to the Sadler's Wells company at Covent Garden (later the Royal Ballet) as a soloist, and she was made a principal dancer in 1955. In one of her more unusual parts, the title role of Ashton's Persephone (1961), she recited Andr Gide's poetry in French in addition to dancing to the music of Igor Stravinsky. Although Beriosova retired from the stage in 1975, becoming a much-valued teacher and coach, she made onstage appearances in 1978 and 1980 as the ballet mistress in Maina Gielgud's demonstration piece Steps, Notes and Squeaks. Bernardino, Minerva Dominican feminist and public servant who in 1945 was one of only four women signers of the UN Charter and went on to be the driving force behind the founding of the UN Commission on the Status of Women (b. 1907, Seibo, Dom.Rep.--d. Aug. 29, 1998, Dominican Republic). Bettmann, Otto L. German-born American photograph archivist who fled from Germany in the 1930s with two trunks full of photographs and went on to found the Bettmann Archive and build it into the world's largest image collection (b. 1903, Leipzig, Ger.--d. May 1, 1998, Boca Raton, Fla.). Bing, Ilse German-born avant-garde photographer whose images featured an inventive use of oblique angles and patterns; she was dubbed "queen of the Leica" for her use of that new lightweight camera in the 1930s (b. March 23, 1899, Frankfurt, Ger.--d. March 10, 1998, New York, N.Y.). Bird, Florence Bayard American-born Canadian broadcaster, journalist, politician, and author who, as chairman of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women, helped launch Canada's contemporary feminist movement; she also served in the Senate (1978-83) and wrote under the name Anne Francis (b. Jan. 15, 1908, Philadelphia, Pa.--d. July 18, 1998, Ottawa, Ont.). Bono, Salvatore ("Sonny") American entertainer, restaurateur, and politician (b. Feb. 16, 1935, Detroit, Mich.--d. Jan. 5, 1998, South Lake Tahoe, Calif.), enjoyed a political career that culminated in service in the U.S. House of Representatives but was better remembered as a performer and the driving force behind the singing duo Sonny and Cher. The two had a number of hits on the pop charts in the 1960s and '70s and were the hosts of a successful television variety show in the '70s. Bono moved to California in the early 1950s and began trying to sell his songs. After working in a succession of jobs that included meat delivery truck driver and construction worker, he became a record packer at Specialty Records, where he worked his way up to writer and producer. He released a few records under a variety of pseudonyms and was co-writer (1962) of "Needles and Pins," which became a hit for Jackie DeShannon and later for the Searchers, before meeting (1963) and marrying (1964) Cherilyn Sarkisian. The couple began (1964) recording Bono's songs and in 1965 had their first--and the best known--of several major hits, "I Got You Babe." They starred in "The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour" from 1971 to 1974, and although they were divorced in 1974, they appeared as cohosts of another television show in 1976-77. Bono then left show business, except for a few guest appearances on TV series, and became (1982) a successful restaurant owner. His opposition to zoning regulations in Palm Springs, Calif., inspired him to enter the 1988 mayoral election there, which he won. Bono's success in that post prompted him to run for the U.S. Senate in 1992, but he lost in the Republican primary. He ran for the House of Representatives in 1994, this time successfully, and was reelected in 1996. His sense of humour was especially prized, and he was one of the most sought-after fund-raising speakers. Bono was killed in a skiing accident. Bradley, Owen American musician and business executive who was credited with having been a major force in the establishment of Nashville, Tenn., as the centre of the country music industry; in 1974 he was elected to the Country Music Hall of Fame (b. Oct. 21, 1915, Westmoreland, Tenn.--d. Jan. 7, 1998, Nashville, Tenn.). Bradley, Thomas American politician (b. Dec. 29, 1917, Calvert, Tex.--d. Sept. 29, 1998, Los Angeles, Calif.), transformed Los Angeles into a bustling business and trading centre during his five terms (1973-93) as the city's mayor. The son of a sharecropper, Bradley moved to Los Angeles when he was seven and faced economic hardship after his father abandoned the family. He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, on a track scholarship but left before graduation to serve on the Los Angeles police force; he earned a law degree (1956) from Southwestern University School of Law in Los Angeles, attending night school. After reaching the rank of lieutenant, with little chance of further promotion owing to his African-American heritage, Bradley retired in 1961 to pursue a career in politics. In 1969, at a time when the city was still reeling from the 1965 Watts riots, Bradley staged his first mayoral campaign. Though narrowly defeated, he ran again in 1973 and won. During his tenure as mayor Los Angeles experienced massive growth and became the second largest city in the U.S., and Bradley was instrumental in forging alliances between business and government sectors. With his stately bearing and soft-spoken demeanour, he enjoyed great popularity that reached a zenith when the city hosted the 1984 Olympic Games. The first privately funded Olympics, they produced a huge profit for Los Angeles. Bradley's approval rating began to fall in the late 1980s, however. Complaints arose over the city's increasing pollution, traffic, and crime, and in 1989 he was fined for improper financial dealings. Trouble continued in 1991 when four white policemen were captured on videotape beating Rodney King, an African-American. Hours after the policemen's acquittal in 1992, the city erupted in riots and more than 50 people were killed. The violence was, in part, blamed on Bradley's mishandling of the situation and his acrimonious relationship with police chief Daryl Gates. Deeply disturbed by the course of events, he decided not to run for reelection. Brickhouse, John Beasley ("Jack") American radio and television broadcaster who, as the voice of the Chicago Cubs (1941-81) and White Sox (1940-67) baseball teams, combined exuberance and colourful storytelling with his signature home-run call, "Hey-hey! Hey-hey!"; a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame (inducted 1983), he also announced football, basketball, golf, and boxing contests as well as numerous political events (b. Jan. 24, 1916, Peoria, Ill.--d. Aug. 6, 1998, Chicago, Ill.). Bridges, Lloyd Vernet, Jr. American actor (b. Jan. 15, 1913, San Leandro, Calif.--d. March 10, 1998, Los Angeles, Calif.), was cast in a wide range of supporting roles on the big screen, including a conniving deputy (High Noon), a space pilot (Rocketship X-M), an ex-Nazi and mountaineer (The White Tower), a brutal kidnapper (The Sound of Fury), and a malevolent cowboy (Colt .45), before achieving crossover success on television as the daring skindiver on "Sea Hunt" (1957-61). Although Bridges attended the University of California, Los Angeles, with the intention of becoming a lawyer, he grew interested in acting and after graduation went to the East Coast to perform in theatrical productions. He made his Broadway debut in 1937 in Othello, in which he had a walk-on role. Bridges soon drew the notice of Hollywood and in 1941 signed with Columbia Pictures. Although many of his early performances were in forgettable movies, he won critical praise for his supporting roles in the classics High Noon and A Walk in the Sun (as a GI during World War II). Bridges's career stagnated when he was blacklisted in the 1950s during the McCarthy era, largely for his membership in the Communist Party and the Actors' Lab, a radical theatre group. Even though he felt that he was typecast in the role of U.S. Navy frogman Mike Nelson in the immensely popular television series "Sea Hunt," he remained with the show for 156 episodes. Until his death Bridges continued to appear in film and television, branching into comic roles, including memorable performances in the film Airplane! and the television comedy "Seinfeld." Bridges's sons, Jeff and Beau, became successful actors. Brimsek, Francis Charles ("Frankie") American ice hockey goaltender for the Boston Bruins who gained renown during the first weeks of his 10-year career for a series of shutouts, which earned him the nickname "Mr. Zero"; he was an All-Star eight times and in 1966 was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame (b. Sept. 26, 1915, Eveleth, Minn.--d. Nov. 11, 1998, Virginia, Minn.). Brinnin, John Malcolm American biographer, critic, and poet (b. Sept. 13, 1916, Halifax, N.S.--d. June 26, 1998, Key West, Fla.), shepherded the boisterous Welsh poet Dylan Thomas throughout his U.S. speaking tours and wrote freely of the experience after Thomas's death. At the age of four Brinnin moved from Canada with his American parents to Detroit. He attended Wayne (later Wayne State) University, the University of Michigan (B.A., 1941), and Harvard University (1941-42). His first book of poems, The Garden Is Political, was published to considerable acclaim in 1942; his seventh and last, Skin Diving in the Virgins and Other Poems, was published in 1970. He also began a long teaching career in 1942. Although he once had defeated the better-known poet John Berryman for a poetry prize, Brinnin eventually came to prefer other genres. While serving as director of the Poetry Center of the Young Men's and Young Women's Hebrew Association (YM-YWHA), Brinnin arranged for Thomas's first performance in the United States in 1949. Brinnin's sympathetic response to the alcoholic poet led to a relationship that lasted until Thomas's death of "insult to the brain" (a fatal mix of cortisone and whiskey) some four years later. Brinnin's description of his experiences, Dylan Thomas in America: An Intimate Journal (1955), presented in detail the greater poet's womanizing and drinking. Brinnin found the relationship disquieting, and he quit his post at the YM-YWHA. In the following years he wrote a number of books, including The Third Rose: Gertrude Stein and Her World (1959), a biography of Gertrude Stein; Sextet: T.S. Eliot & Truman Capote & Others (1981), a series of vignettes on T.S. Eliot, Truman Capote, Elizabeth Bowen, and others; and three histories of North Atlantic steamships (he was an inveterate traveler). He also edited three anthologies of 20th-century American and British poetry and Emily Dickinson: Poems (1960). Brown, Raymond Edward American theologian (b. May 22, 1928, New York, N.Y.--d. Aug. 8, 1998, Redwood City, Calif.), was a highly regarded Roman Catholic biblical scholar. His rigorous examination of the Gospels resulted in the publication of such works as the two-volume The Gospel According to John (1966, 1970), The Birth of the Messiah (1977), and The Death of the Messiah (1994) as well as more than 35 other books. Brown's centrist stance sometimes angered conservative Catholics, especially in 1971, when he questioned whether Mary's virginal conception of Jesus could ever be proven historically. After receiving both a B.A. (1948) and M.A. (1949) from the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., Brown entered (1951) the Society of St. Sulpice for seminary teaching and was ordained (1953) in the St. Augustine, Fla., diocese. In Baltimore, Md., he earned doctorates in sacred theology (1955) from St. Mary's Seminary and in Semitic languages (1958) from Johns Hopkins University. While a fellow at the American Schools of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, Brown worked on a Dead Sea Scrolls concordance, and in 1963 he was an adviser to Bishop Joseph Hurley at the Second Vatican Council. Brown taught at St. Mary's Seminary from 1959 until 1971, then spent the majority of his teaching career at Union Theological Seminary in New York City until his retirement in 1990. He was the first Roman Catholic professor given tenure at the historically Protestant institution and built a reputation as an erudite and spellbinding lecturer. Brugger, Kenneth C. American amateur naturalist who on Jan. 2, 1975, discovered the long-sought winter home of the monarch butterfly in the mountains of Mexico (b. 1918?--d. Nov. 25, 1998, Austin, Texas). Bryden, Beryl Audrey British jazz singer whom Ella Fitzgerald dubbed "Britain's queen of the blues"; of the more than 100 songs she recorded during her half-century-long career, she was especially remembered for her washboard accompaniment on Lonnie Donegan's "Rock Island Line" (b. May 11, 1920, Norwich, Eng.--d. July 14, 1998, London, Eng.). Bunting-Smith, Mary Ingraham American scientist, educator, and administrator (b. July 10, 1910, New York, N.Y.--d. Jan. 21, 1998, Hanover, N.H.), as president of Radcliffe College (1960-72), created the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study (later Bunting Institute), which sought to advance women's role in society. After graduating from Vassar College (B.A., 1931), she attended the University of Wisconsin, where she earned a doctorate (1934) in agricultural bacteriology. She married in 1937 and divided her time between raising a family and conducting research at Yale University. Following the death of her husband in 1954, Bunting-Smith was forced to find full-time employment. Unable to obtain a faculty position at Yale (then an all-male college) because she was a woman, she became dean of Douglass College, the sister school of Rutgers University, where she also served as professor of bacteriology. In 1960 she became the fifth president of Radcliffe College. Believing there was a "climate of unexpectation" for women, Bunting-Smith founded the Radcliffe Institute of Independent Study in 1961. The centre examined the forces affecting women's position in society and provided fellowships to female scholars and artists, particularly those whose careers had been interrupted by family obligations. Alumnae of the institute include author Alice Walker and psychologist Carol Gilligan. Bunting-Smith also sought a fuller integration of the college with Harvard University, and it was during her tenure that Radcliffe students first received Harvard degrees and were granted admission to the university's graduate and business schools. In 1964 Bunting-Smith became the first female member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Burney, Leroy Edgar American physician who, as surgeon general of the U.S. Public Health Service from 1956 to 1961, became the first federal official to name smoking as a cause of lung cancer (b. Dec. 31, 1906, Burney, Ind.--d. July 31, 1998, Arlington Heights, Ill.). Buscaglia, (Felice) Leo(nardo) ("Dr. Hug"; "Dr. Love"; "Love Merchant"; "Hug Doctor") American guru to self-help aficionados who, by means of books, lectures, and recordings, was a tireless advocate of the power of love; he often reinforced his message by physically embracing members of his audiences (b. March 31, 1924, Los Angeles, Calif.--d. June 12, 1998, Lake Tahoe, Nev.). Caccialanza, Gisella American ballet dancer who was a charter member of George Balanchine's first company in the U.S., danced in musical films Balanchine choreographed, and was a member of the New York City Ballet's forerunner, Ballet Society, before joining the San Francisco Ballet in 1951; she later taught at the latter company's school (b. Sept. 17, 1914, San Diego, Calif.--d. July 16, 1998, Daly City, Calif.). Calderone, Mary Steichen American physician who, as cofounder (1964) and head (1964-82) of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States, crusaded for the inclusion of responsible sex education in the public-school curriculum (b. July 1, 1904, New York, N.Y.--d. Oct. 24, 1998, Kennett Square, Pa.). Campanis, Alexander Sebastian (Alessandro Campani; "Al") Greek-born American baseball executive whose 44-year career with the Dodgers (in both Brooklyn, N.Y., and Los Angeles), which included the 1981 World Series championship, was ended in 1987 by televised comments in which he opined that blacks did not have managerial ability (b. Nov. 2, 1916, Kos, Greece--d. June 21, 1998, Fullerton, Calif.). Caray, Harry (Harry Christopher Carabina) American baseball announcer whose exuberant coverage of major league games made him a favourite of fans for over 50 years; his trademark expression "Holy cow!" and his raspy seventh-inning-stretch renditions of "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" became legendary, and he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1989; Caray's son and grandson also became baseball announcers (b. March 1, 1919?, St. Louis, Mo.--d. Feb. 18, 1998, Rancho Mirage, Calif.). Carmichael, Stokely (Kwame Ture [or Toure]) Trinidadian-born civil rights leader and black nationalist (b. June 29, 1941, Port of Spain, Trinidad--d. Nov. 15, 1998, Conakry, Guinea), originated the slogan "black power," urged African-Americans in the United States to abandon nonviolent protests in favour of more radical--even revolutionary--tactics, and advocated Pan-Africanism. Carmichael immigrated to the United States at the age of 11 and attended the predominantly white Bronx High School of Science in New York City. While a student at Howard University, Washington, D.C., he joined the Freedom Riders, activists who traveled by bus throughout the South to challenge segregationist transportation laws. After graduating (A.B., 1964) he led a Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, popularly pronounced "snick") voter-registration drive in Lowndes county, Ala., that raised the number of registered black voters from 70 to 2,600. Although candidates of the newly created Lowndes County Freedom Organization were defeated in the November 1966 election, the political party and its panther logo served to inspire the creation of the militant Black Panther Party. After witnessing the brutality inflicted upon nonviolent civil-rights demonstrators, Carmichael supported more aggressive methods of protest. Within weeks of being chosen in 1966 as chairman of SNCC, he electrified and alarmed the nation with calls for black power, and he was seen as an indirect contributor to the fiery riots that burned through U.S. inner cities that summer. His essay "What We Want," published in the New York Review of Books in September 1966, defended black power as a philosophy "because this country does not function by morality, love, and nonviolence, but by power. Thus, we determined to win political power, with the idea of moving on from there into activity that would have economic effects." He argued for social upheaval and the "liberation" of the country's black ghettoes, and he staunchly defended his militancy: "No one ever talked about 'white power' because power in this country is white . . . the furor over 'black power' reveals how deep racism runs and the great fear which is attached to it." While his writings focused on the community-building aspects of black power, his rhetoric became more inflammatory. He was ousted from SNCC leadership in 1967 but then was made honorary prime minister of the Black Panthers. Opposing a decision by the Black Panther leadership to seek support among white groups, Carmichael left the U.S. for Guinea in 1969, urging other African-Americans to follow him. He adopted the name Kwame Ture after the Guinean president Ahmed Skou Tour and the deposed Ghanian leader Kwame Nkrumah--both early proponents of Pan-Africanism--and redirected his efforts toward Pan-Africanism through leadership in the All-African People's Revolutionary Party. He blamed "imperialistic forces" for the prostate cancer that eventually claimed his life, but his spirit remained unbowed--he continued to answer the telephone with the emphatic pledg

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