Meaning of YEAR IN REVIEW 2000: OBITUARY in English

Abeles, Sir (Emil Herbert) Peter Hungarian-born Australian business executive who immigrated to Australia in 1949 and soon after cofounded Alltrans Pty Ltd., a small transport company with two trucks; by 1999 Alltrans had merged with or taken over several other firms, and the resulting multinational corporation, TNT Ltd., had transportation operations in at least 180 countries. Abeles was knighted in 1972, appointed to the board of the Australian Reserve Bank in 1984, named Australian of the Year in 1987, and made a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1991 (b. April 25, 1924, Vienna, Austriad. June 25, 1999, Sydney, Australia). Abraham, Sir Edward Penley British biochemist who worked as a researcher with Ernst Chain and Howard Florey (both of whom later shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine) on the clinical development of penicillin; he was later involved in the development of the class of antibiotics known as cephalosporins. Abraham, who donated most of the fortune he earned from his patents to the Edward Abraham Fund at the University of Oxford, was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1958 and was knighted in 1980 (b. June 10, 1913, Southampton, Hampshire, Eng.d. May 9, 1999, Oxford, Eng.). Adcock, Joseph Wilbur American baseball player who hit 336 home runs in a 17-year career in the major leagues; although he once hit four home runs in a single game and established the major league record for total bases (18), his most famous hit came on May 26, 1959, when, playing for the Milwaukee Braves, he ended the game in which the Pittsburgh Pirates' Harvey Haddix had pitched 12 perfect innings (b. Oct. 30, 1927, Coushatta, La.d. May 3, 1999, Coushatta). Adhikari, Man Mohan Nepalese politician who dedicated most of his adult life to the fight against the monarchy and authoritarian rule; in 199495 he served as Nepal's first communist prime minister for about nine months, during which he initiated a number of reforms, such as a build-your-own-village program to direct money to poor villages (b. June 1920, Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepald. April 26, 1999). Aigner, Ladislas Hungarian-born photojournalist whose use of the then new 35-mm Leica camera made him one of the pioneers in candid news photography in the 1930s and allowed him to capture such famous images as Albert Einstein standing before a blackboard and looking slightly rumpled (his favourite photograph of himself) and Benito Mussolini pinching his nose (b. Sept. 14, 1901, Ersekujvar, Hung., Austria-Hungary [now Nove Zamky, Czech Rep.]d. March 29, 1999, Waltham, Mass.). Alberti, Rafael Spanish poet and playwright (b. Dec. 16, 1902, Puerto de Santa Mara, Spaind. Oct. 28, 1999, Puerto de Santa Mara), was regarded as one of the leading poets of the 20th century; his oeuvre also included essays, plays, and works of prose. Alberti, who was born to a family of prosperous wine merchants, studied art in Madrid and achieved some success as a painter before he began to write poetry in 1923. His first book of verse, Marinero en tierra (1925), winner of the 1925 Spanish National Prize for Literature, recalled the sea of the Cdiz region of his youth. In 1927 Alberti joined the so-called Generation of 1927, a group of Spanish poets and artists who came together in Seville to celebrate the tercentenary of the death of poet Luis de Gngora y Argote. In the 1930s Alberti devoted his time to political activitieshe became a member of the Spanish Communist Party and was heavily involved in leftist politics. He visited the Soviet Union and started the revolutionary magazine Octubre in 1934, fought on the Republican side of the 193639 Spanish Civil War, organized the Second International Congress of Writers in 1938, and became one of the leading figures in the Alianza de Intelectuales Antifascistas (Alliance of Antifascist Intellectuals). After Gen. Francisco Franco's Nationalist troops won the civil war, Alberti fled (1939) to France, where he worked as a radio announcer, then to Argentina, where he published his most lauded work, La arboleda perdida (1942; The Lost Grove,1976), and later to Rome. He returned to Spain in 1977, two years after the death of Franco, at which time he said, I left with my fist closed and return with my hand open as a symbol of peace and brotherhood among all Spaniards. Soon after his return, Alberti was elected a member of the Cortes (parliament) as a Communist and represented Cdiz, but he resigned his post after four months to devote his time to poetry readings. He won the Cervantes Prize in 1983. Arciniegas Angueyra, Germn Colombian historian, novelist, essayist, and diplomat (b. Dec. 6, 1900, Bogot, Colom.d. Nov. 29/30, 1999, Bogot), wrote dozens of books and thousands of essays and newspaper articles (especially in the newspaper El tiempo, which he also served as editor in chief and director) during a career that touched nine decades and was an important influence on Colombian culture. He wrote prolifically on Latin American history and cultural identitya number of his books were translated into English and became college textbooksbut his outspoken criticism of the region's military dictatorships led those governments to ban several of his works and in the early 1950s resulted in his being forced into exile. Arciniegas had his first newspaper article published when he was a student at the National University of Colombia, Bogot. He graduated from that university's law school in 1924, and his first book, El estudiante de la mesa redonda, was published in 1932. Such books as Amrica, tierra firme (1937) and Los comuneros (1938) followed, and in 1945 one of Arciniegas's finest works, Biografa del Caribe (Caribbean, Sea of the New World, 1946), appeared. Another of his best-known books was Amrica en Europa (1975; America in Europe: A History of the New World in Reverse, 1986). In it he stressed the influence the New World had had on the Old, the opposite approach of the one most commonly taken and a view that he believed had been largely neglected. In addition to his writing career, Arciniegas published five magazines; served as visiting professor at a number of American universities, among them Columbia University, New York City (1943, 194757), the University of Chicago (1944), Mills College, Oakland, Calif. (1945), and the University of California, Berkeley (1945); engaged in public service in such capacities as member of the Colombian legislature (193334, 193940, 195758), minister of education (194142, 194546), and ambassador to Italy (195962), Israel (1962), Venezuela (196770), and Vatican City (197678); and served (197981) as dean of the faculty of philosophy and letters at the University of the Andes in Bogot. Argaa Ferraro, Luis Mara Paraguayan vice president whose battle for power among the bitterly struggling factions of the ruling Colorado Party led to his assassination (b. Oct. 9, 1932, Asuncin, Paraguayd. March 23, 1999, Asuncin). Armstrong, William Howard American educator and writer whose best-known book, Sounder (1969), won the Newbery Medal in 1970 and was filmed in 1972; he taught ninth grade for over 50 years and, in addition to children's books, wrote a number of educational philosophy works (b. Sept. 14, 1914, Lexington, Va.d. April 11, 1999, Kent, Conn.). Arrington, Leonard James American historian whose many writings on the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and service in the 1970s and '80s as church historian and then as director of the Joseph Fielding Smith Institute for Church History at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, led him to be considered the dean of Mormon historians; he was the author of 21 books, including the autobiographical Adventures of a Church Historian (1998), as well as hundreds of journal articles (b. July 2, 1917, Twin Falls, Idahod. Feb. 11, 1999, Salt Lake City, Utah). Axton, Hoyt Wayne American singer and songwriter who produced an eclectic mix of music that spanned folk, country, and rock. Although Axton, a folksy baritone, had hits with Boney Fingers and When the Morning Comes, many of his songs were made famous by others, including Joy to the World (Three Dog Night), Heartbreak Hotel (coauthor; Elvis Presley), No No Song (Ringo Starr), and The Pusher (Steppenwolf) (b. March 25, 1938, Duncan, Okla.d. Oct. 26, 1999, Victor, Mont.). Backus, Robert American weight thrower who dominated his sport during the 1950s; he won seven consecutive Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) titles in the 25.4-kg (56-lb) weight throw (195359) and captured an eighth title in the event in 1965; he won six consecutive AAU titles in the 15.9-kg (35-lb) weight throw (195459) and a seventh in 1961; he also won a gold medal in the hammer throw at the 1955 Pan American Games (b. 1927, Pembroke, Mass.d. June 30, 1999, Boston, Mass.). Bannen, Ian Scottish character actor whose 50-year career included acclaimed stage appearances in plays by Shakespeare and Eugene O'Neill; television work such as the miniseries Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy and a 1990s update of the popular Dr. Finlay series; and motion pictures, including The Flight of the Phoenix (1965), for which he received an Academy Award nomination, and Waking Ned Devine (1998). Bannen received a lifetime achievement award from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts in 1996 (b. June 29, 1928, Airdrie, Lanarkshire, Scot.d. Nov. 3, 1999, near Loch Ness, Scot.). Bart, Lionel British composer, lyricist, and playwright who helped revive the British stage musical with such shows as Lock Up Your Daughters (1959), Fings Ain't Wot They Used t'Be (1959), and especially Oliver! (1960), his greatest success; he also wrote a number of hit songs, including the title song from the 1964 film From Russia with Love (b. Aug. 1, 1930, London, Eng.d. April 3, 1999, London). Bates, Daisy Lee Gatson American civil rights leader (b. Nov. 10, 1914, Huttig, Ark.d. Nov. 4, 1999, Little Rock, Ark.), was instrumental in bringing about one of the first major victories in the struggle for civil rights when she pushed for the integration of schools in Arkansas and aided the first African-American students who in 1957 entered Central High School in Little Rock. Bates and her husband, L.C. Bates, worked together on their weekly newspaper, the Arkansas State Press, and relentlessly campaigned against segregation and racially motivated inequities in treatment by the police and the criminal justice system. In 1952 she became Arkansas president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. In that position, following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decision that segregated schools were unconstitutional, Bates increased her school desegregation efforts, and when officials attempted to put off implementation of an integration plan, the NAACP sued. Eventually nine students were chosen to be the first to enroll, but Gov. Orval Faubus called in the National Guard to turn them away, and crowds formed to harass and threaten them. The Bateses were also threatened and their home vandalized. Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort the students, however, and Bates counseled and advised them in order to boost their courage and help them cope with the hostile treatment they faced. Because of the Bateses' desegregation efforts, though, their newspaper lost advertising revenue and was forced to close in 1959. Bates thereafter worked as a community organizer and in various other civil rights activities. In 1962 she published a book about her experiences, The Long Shadow of Little Rock, which had a foreword by Eleanor Roosevelt. A reprint edition was issued in 1986, and in 1988 it was honoured with the American Book Award, a first for a reprint. Bayati, Abdul Wahab al- Iraqi modernist poet who was a pioneer in the use of free verse rather than classical Arabic poetic forms; although al-Bayati spent a decade (198090) as Iraq's cultural attach to Spain, his leftist political views and outspoken opposition to the Iraqi government caused him to spend most of his life in self-imposed exile. He was stripped of his citizenship in 1995, but his work, comprising more than 20 volumes of poetry, was never officially banned in Iraq (b. 1926, Baghdad, Iraqd. Aug. 3, 1999, Damascus, Syria). Baz, 'Abd al-Aziz ibn Abdallah ibn Saudi Muslim cleric who as the grand mufti (from 1993) and traditionalist head of the Council of Senior Islamic Scholars (from the early 1960s) was revered by millions and exerted a powerful influence on the legal system in Saudi Arabia; the blind cleric's religious edicts, or fatwas, included prohibitions on fortune tellers, women driving cars, and the import of short veils that fail to cover a woman's face completely, as well as the approval of a holy war, or jihad, against Iraq, which allowed non-Muslim troops on Saudi territory during the Persian Gulf War (b. 1912?, Riyadh, Saudi Arabiad. May 13, 1999, At-Ta'if?, Saudi Arabia). Benda, Vaclav Czech philosopher, mathematician, writer, and politician who was a prominent member of the dissident group Charter 77, which played a leading role in the Velvet Revolution, a popular upheaval that ended communist control of Czechoslovakia in late 1989; a conservative Catholic, he refused to join the Communist Party in the early 1970s, a decision that derailed his plans for an academic career. He served as a Charter 77 spokesman both before and after his imprisonment from 1979 to 1983 on charges of subverting the state; after 1989 he headed an institute investigating crimes of the communist regime. Benda was elected to the upper house of the Czech parliament in 1996 (b. Aug. 8, 1946, Prague, Czech. [now Czech Rep.]d. June 1, 1999, Prague). Berry, John American film director who worked as a child actor and as an actor and director for Orson Welles's Mercury Theatre before embarking in 1943 on a Hollywood directing career; his film credits included From This Day Forward (1946), Casbah (1948), and the documentary The Hollywood Ten (1951), which supported those accused of communist ties during the House Un-American Activities Committee hearings. The latter film led to Berry's own Hollywood blacklisting during the 1950s; he moved to France, where he acted, directed, and made his home (b. 1917, New York, N.Y.d. Nov. 29, 1999, Paris, France). Bioy Casares, Adolfo Argentine writer (b. Sept. 15, 1914, Buenos Aires, Arg.d. March 8, 1999, Buenos Aires), explored themes dealing with reality as illusion, the elusive nature of the passage of time, and the creation of parallel worlds; his works featuring magic realism were published under his own name and the pseudonyms Javier Miranda and Martin Sacastru. Outside Argentina he was better known for his collaborations with his friend Jorge Luis Borges, and the two published under the pseudonyms Honorio Bustos Domecq, B. Lynch Davis, and B. Suarez Lynch, which they created by combining portions of two of their great-grandfathers' names. Bioy Casares studied law for a time but then switched his focus to philosophy and literature. His earliest joint work with Borges was on yogurt advertising, but the two also edited the literary magazine Destiempo (1936) and wrote detective fiction. The first of Bioy Casares's works to gain attention was the novel La invencin de Morel (1940; The Invention of Morel: and Other Stories, 1964). It was translated into 19 languages, and Alain Robbe-Grillet based his film script for Last Year at Marienbad (1961) on it. Among notable works that followed were El sueo de los hroes (1954; The Dream of Heroes, 1987), Diario de la guerra del cerdo (1969; Diary of the War of the Pig, 1972), and La aventura de un fotgrafo en La Plata (1985; The Adventure of a Photographer in La Plata, 1991). Besides collaborating on such satiric novels as Seis problemas para Don Isidro Parodi (1942; Six Problems for Don Isidro Parodi, 1981) and Crnicas de Bustos Domecq (1967; Chronicles of Bustos Domecq, 1976), Bioy Casares and Borges edited books of poetry, ran a publishing concern, andwith Bioy Casares's wife, the poet Silvina Ocampocompiled and edited anthologies of fantastic literature and poetry. In 1990 Bioy Casares was awarded the Cervantes Prize. Bird, Vere Cornwall Antiguan politician who overcame childhood poverty and a lack of formal education to lead his country to independence from Great Britain; he first attained prominence as a labour leader, serving as president of the Antigua Trades and Labour Union from 1943 to 1967; he later served as Antigua's chief minister (196067) and premier (196771, 197681); in 1981, after Britain agreed to Antiguan independence, he became the first prime minister of the new country of Antigua and Barbuda, a position he held until 1994, when his son Lester succeeded him; although he was credited with bringing much-needed business to his poverty-stricken country after its independence, he was also criticized for numerous corruption scandals; he was, nevertheless, still revered by many Antiguans at the time of his death (b. Dec. 7, 1909/10, St. John's, Antiguad. June 28, 1999, St. John's). Blackmun, Harry Andrew U.S. Supreme Court justice (b. Nov. 12, 1908, Nashville, Ill.d. March 4, 1999, Arlington, Va.), became one of the tribunal's most controversial justices during his tenure (197094) and was best identified as the author of the Roe v. Wade (1973) decision, which established a woman's right to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. Blackmun, who grew up in St. Paul, Minn., graduated (1932) from Harvard Law School. After a brief clerkship, he joined a Minneapolis, Minn., law firm in 1934 and a year later began teaching at St. Paul College of Law, where he remained until 1941. In 1950 he was named resident counsel for the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., a position he held until 1959, when Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. In 1970 Pres. Richard M. Nixon was searching for a conservative law and order judge to fill a Supreme Court vacancy created by the resignation of Abe Fortas. With two previous candidates already rejected by the Senate, Nixon selected Blackmun. Relatively unknown and noncontroversial, he was unanimously confirmed and on June 9, 1970, took his seat. He quickly became one of the most visible and outspoken justices. In the furor that ensued after the court's decision on Roe v. Wade, Blackmun received thousands of hate letters and was placed under federal protection. A champion of the poor and oppressed, he became increasingly liberal, often finding himself in the court's minority on civil rights cases. He supported affirmative action in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978), and in Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) defended gay rights, arguing in the dissent that the right to privacy extended to homosexual behaviour. Shortly before his retirement, Blackmun expressed his opposition to the death penalty, criticizing the random and arbitrary manner in which it was applied. Bogarde, Sir Dirk British motion picture actor who was one of Great Britain's top box-office leading men in the 1950s, notably in Doctor in the House (1954) and its sequels, but he later excelled in darker, more complex character roles, such as the blackmailed homosexual lawyer in Victim (1961), the sinister manservant in The Servant (1963), and the doomed Gustav von Aschenbach in Death in Venice (1971). Beginning in 1977 Bogarde published a series of well-received memoirs, as well as novels and book reviews; he was knighted in 1992 (b. March 28, 1921, London, Eng.d. May 8, 1999, London). Bonner, Neville Thomas Australian politician who was the first Aboriginal to win election to the country's parliament, where he served in the Senate from 1971 until 1983, espousing Aboriginal land rights and opposing assimilationist policies advocated by a conservative government (b. March 28, 1922, Ukerebagh Island, Tweed Heads, N.S.W., Australiad. Feb. 5, 1999, Ipswich, Queen., Australia). Boubat, Edouard French photographer who captured scenes that emphasized the quiet poetics found in ordinary life (b. Sept. 13, 1923, Paris, Franced. June 30, 1999, Paris). Bowerman, Bill American coach, inventor, and entrepreneur who while serving (194972) as coach of the track team at the University of Oregon led teams to four National Collegiate Athletic Association titles (1962, 1964, 1965, and 1970) and coached 24 NCAA individual champions; in his quest to give his runners an edge, Bowerman experimented with creating a lighter outsole and fashioned the modern-day waffle running shoe by using his wife's waffle iron to meld his revolutionary new design, using latex, leather, and some glue. During the 1960s Bowerman and Phil Knight, one of the athletes whom Bowerman had coached, each contributed $500 and manufactured 330 pairs of the new lightweight shoes. The venture was the foundation for Nike Inc., which was named for the Greek goddess of victory. In 1999 Bowerman retired from the Nike board of directors (b. Feb. 19, 1911, Portland, Ore.d. Dec. 24, 1999, Fossil, Ore.). Bowie, Lester American jazz musician (b. Oct. 11, 1941, Frederick, Md.d. Nov. 9, 1999, Brooklyn, N.Y.), played trumpet flamboyantly, with broad, sweeping gestures, and created extraordinary timbres, from full, rich tones to human-sounding growls, whimpers, and mock-laughter, in his melodies. His innovative sounds and free-wheeling sense of rhythm yielded musical lines that encompassed a range of expression rare for jazz; comedy and tragedy as well as abstraction came within his scope. At an early age Bowie, from a talented musical family, studied trumpet in St. Louis, Mo., and practiced with his horn aimed out the window, in the hope that Louis Armstrong would pass by and hear him; bebop trumpeters were his other early inspirations. After serving in the army, attending some college-level music classes, and accompanying touring rhythm-and-blues stars, among them his first wife, Fontella Bass, he lived in Chicago (196569) and began his three-decade tenure with the Art Ensemble of Chicago. The latter, an adventurous and colourful freely improvising quintet, became a favourite of the European and Japanese jazz circuits, and Bowie's popularity led to his forming a series of groups from small combos to his 59-piece Sho' Nuff Orchestra of 1979. His best-known group was Lester Bowie's Brass Fantasy, an octet that played original works as well as jazz arrangements of rock and pop hits; he also worked often as a sideman, and his versatility extended to performing solo trumpet concerts and composing both songs and large-scale works. Noted for his humour, he performed in a white laboratory coat, chef's hat, or suede jacket, swaying and stepping while he played, yet his underlying seriousness and lyricism were the more significant elements that made him the most influential jazz trumpeter of his generation. Bowles, Paul American-born author and composer (b. Dec. 30, 1910, New York, N.Y.d. Nov. 18, 1999, Tangier, Mor.), composed graceful, Maurice Ravel-influenced music for the concert hall and Broadway stage before moving (1947) to Tangier and writing the best-selling novel The Sheltering Sky (1949), set in the North African desert. His subsequent fiction similarly depicted human depravity amid exotic settings, with sordid events and psychological collapse recounted in a detached, elegant style. The son of an unloving father, Bowles grew up in Queens, N.Y., published a Surrealist poem while still in his teens, and briefly attended the University of Virginia before sailing to Europe; there he became friends with American expatriate composers and writers, including Gertrude Stein, who was intrigued by his nihilism. He studied music with Nadia Boulanger, Aaron Copland, and Virgil Thomson and, residing in New York City from the mid-1930s, composed many classical works, including ballets and operas, as well as incidental music for plays. There, too, the sexually ambiguous Bowles met his lesbian wife, Jane; both had many affairs during their 35-year marriage. When he helped his wife write a novel, the experience reawakened his own interest in writing fiction. The Moroccan landscape, people, and drugs were reflected in his later writings, including the novels Let It Come Down (1952) and The Spider's House (1955), Collected Stories, 19391976, and Days: Tangier Journal (19871989). He was noted for encouraging William Burroughs and other Beat Generation writers; Bowles also wrote essays about his extensive travels, collected Moroccan folk music, translated writings of Arab authors, and appeared in Bernardo Bertolucci's 1990 film adaptation The Sheltering Sky. Boxcar Willie American country music singer (b. Sept. 1, 1931, Sterrett, Texasd. April 12, 1999, Branson, Mo.), delighted fans with his hobo persona and imitations of train sounds and helped revive a traditional style of country music. The son of a fiddle-playing railroad man, he grew up in a small house beside the tracks and began imitating the sounds of train whistles as a toddler. He made his radio debut in 1942, and as an adolescent he performed under the name Marty Martin in bars, honky-tonks, and the Big D Jamboree, a regional music festival. In the late 1950s he recorded the little-known album Marty Martin Sings Country Music and Stuff like That. He served as a pilot in the air force for a number of years before returning to country music. One day while stuck in traffic waiting for a freight train to pass, he saw a hobo resembling an old friend named Willie, so he composed the song Boxcar Willie and adopted the name and persona. The promoter Drew Taylor saw him at a Nashville, Tenn., club in 1977 and immediately signed him for the first of four British tours. This led to a 1979 engagement at the 11th International Country Music Festival at London's Wembley Stadium, an event that put him on the track to stardom. Two years later his album King of the Road rolled out through television ads, selling more than three million copies. Subsequent albums included Last Train to Heaven (1982) and The Spirit of America (1991). He was made the 60th cast member of the Grand Ole Opry in 1981. In the late 1980s he made a permanent stop in Branson, where he gave performances in his own dinner theatre as often as six times a week before being weakened by leukemia. Boyd, Arthur Australian painter (b. July 24, 1920, Murrumbeena, Vic., Australiad. April 24, 1999, Melbourne, Australia), contemplated natural settings as well as the depths of humanity in his highly acclaimed art. He was born into a family of artists and left school at the age of 14 to devote himself to painting. Although one of his antiwar paintings was confiscated in 1942, he continued to serve in World War II with the Australian Army Service Corps' cartographic unit. In 1955 he completed a sculpture for the Olympic swimming pool in Melbourne, and from 1957 to 1959, influenced by scenes of poverty in the Australian outback, he produced his celebrated Bride series. The book Nebuchadnezzar, with text by T.S.R. Boase (1972), reproduced the series that Boyd had crafted as a protest against the Vietnam War. He illustrated the poetry collections Jonah (1973) and The Lady and the Unicorn (1975) by Peter Porter, and in the works Narcissus, Mars, and The Magic Flute he extended the themes of hedonism, violence, and betrayal. His style was compared to that of Marc Chagall and Pablo Picasso. Despite his dark subject matter, he considered himself an optimist who had ghastly struggles with the black god. In 1993 he and his wife, Yvonne Lennie, donated their 1,000-ha (2,500-ac) estate in Bundanon to the Australian government for use by visiting artists and scientists. Boyd received many honours, including O.B.E. (1970), Officer of the Order of Australia (1979), and Companion of the Order of Australia (1992), and in 1995 the Australia Day Council named him Australian of the Year. Bresson, Robert French motion picture director (b. Sept. 25, 1901, Bromont-Lamothe, Puy-de-Dme, Franced. Dec. 18, 1999, Drou-sur-Drouette, France), released only one short film and 13 features in his nearly 50 years as a filmmaker, but many of them were considered artistic masterpieces, and he was credited with having ignited the New Wave movement. He was a perfectionist, and in his view images, not words, were the best means of telling a story. His employment of simple, stark, dramatic images and use of untrained actors who were coached to deliver their lines in flat monotones served to emphasize his films' spiritual and psychological content. Bresson at first planned to be a painter, and he also became a talented photographer and an accomplished pianist, but his interests turned to filmmaking in the 1930s. He made his first film, the short comedy Les Affaires publiques, in 1934. Bresson was imprisoned by the Germans early in World War II, and after his release he established his reputation with his first full-length feature, Les Anges du pch (1943), with dialogue by Jean Giraudoux. His next motion picture, Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne (1945), had dialogue by Jean Cocteau. Bresson's international reputation was secured with Le Journal d'un cur de campagne (1950; The Diary of a Country Priest), which won the Golden Lion award at the 1951 Venice Film Festival. This film marked his last use of professional actors. Un Condamn mort s'est chapp (1956; A Man Escaped), about a condemned Resistance fighter's escape from a Nazi prison camp, won Bresson the Cannes International Film Festival's best director award in 1957 and was perhaps his greatest popular success. In one of his most famous and highly regarded films, Pickpocket (1959), which was influenced by Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel Crime and Punishment, he imbued his subject with a sense of erotic obsession. Bresson followed that film with the emotionally intense Le Procs de Jeanne d'Arc (1961; The Trial of Joan of Arc, 1962); Au hasard, Balthazar (1966; Balthazar), which used a donkey's life to illustrate brutal human behaviour; Mouchette (1966), which showed the final two days of an unhappy young girl's life; and Une Femme douce (1969) and Quatre nuits d'un rveur (1971; Four Nights of a Dreamer), two more Dostoyevsky-inspired stories. He then was able to make a film he had been planning for a number of years, Lancelot du Lac (1974; Lancelot of the Lake), his nonromantic retelling of the Arthurian legend. Perhaps his most controversial motion picture was Le Diable probablement (1977; The Devil Probably), a brutal study of the despair of a group of alienated intellectual youths. Bresson's final workand the one he found most satisfyingwas L'Argent (1983). Inspired by a story by Leo Tolstoy and illustrating how a small misdeed can lead to a much larger evil, it was premiered at the Cannes Film Festival and won its Grand Prix du Cinema de Cration. Bromwich, John Australian tennis player who, despite having his career interrupted by World War II military service, won two Australian Open singles titles (1937 and 1946); 13 Grand Slam doubles titles, including three at the U.S. championships, two at the All-England (Wimbledon) championships, and eight consecutive titles at the Australian Open (193839, 194650); and 20 of 21 Davis Cup doubles matches. The ambidextrous Bromwich, who was known for his distinctive two-handed forehand, was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1984 (b. Nov. 14, 1918, Sydney, Australiad. Oct. 21, 1999, Geelong, Vic., Australia). Brough, Peter Royce British ventriloquist who, with his cheeky schoolboy dummy, Archie Andrews, delighted millions of radio listeners on Navy Mixture and other programs in the 1940s and later with his own BBC radio program, Educating Archie (195060). Brough also successfully managed commercial products based on Archie, but later forays into television were disappointing (b. Feb. 26, 1916, London, Eng.d. June 3, 1999, Northwood, Middlesex, Eng.). Brown, Charles American blues singer-songwriter whose smooth, sophisticated vocalshis timbre and phrasing resembled Nat King Cole'sand masterful piano playing were a leading influence on West Coast blues, memorably in such hit 1940s and '50s recordings as Driftin' Blues, Merry Christmas Baby, and Black Night; he died shortly before his induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (b. Sept. 13, 1922?, Texas City, Texasd. Jan. 21, 1999, Oakland, Calif.). Brown, Dennis Jamaican reggae singer who began recording as a child and eventually released more than 75 albums; his sweet voice and lively style drew the attention of reggae star Bob Marley and earned him the title Crown Prince of Reggae, but he failed to match Marley's crossover popularity (b. Feb. 1, 1957, Kingston, Jam.d. July 1, 1999, Kingston). Bubis, Ignatz German property developer and Orthodox Jewish community leader who survived a Nazi labour camp and eventually served as the acknowledged leader of the Jewish community in Germany; as an influential member of the liberal Free Democratic Party and as the moderate head (from 1992) of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, Bubis sought to build on the past and reconcile Jews and non-Jews in postWorld War II Germany (b. Jan. 17, 1927, Breslau, Ger. [now Wroclaw, Pol.]d. Aug. 13, 1999, Frankfurt, Ger.). Buero Vallejo, Antonio Spanish playwright (b. Sept. 29, 1916, Guadalajara, Spaind. April 28, 2000, Madrid, Spain), was the country's best-known and most important dramatist in the second half of the 20th century. He was studying art in Madrid when the Spanish Civil War began in 1936, and he left school to become a medical orderly in the Republican Army. At the end of the war he was imprisoned and sentenced to death (the Nationalists had earlier killed his father), but his death sentence was commuted. When he was released from prison in 1946, he decided to stay in Spain and oppose the regime of Francisco Franco through his writing. Using allegory and myth and, particularly in his later plays, events and personages from history, he created dramas that portrayed the oppressive political situation of Spain, and they usually, but not always, got past the government's censors. A number of his characters were blind, deaf, or insane or suffered from other disabilities, a device he used to comment on both the political and the human situation. His second play, Historia de una escalera, won the Lope de Vega prize in 1949. It was followed by some 30 additional plays, including Hoy es fiesta (1956) and El concierto de San Ovidio (1962). He also translated the works of other playwrights, including those of Bertolt Brecht, and published writings on art and artists. In 1971 he was given membership in the Royal Spanish Academy, and in 1986 he won the Cervantes Prize, the highest literary award in Spain. He was the first playwright ever to be so honoured. Burg, Yosef Salomon German-born Jewish rabbi and Israeli politician who emigrated from Germany to Palestine in 1939 and became the longest serving member of the Israeli Knesset (parliament), holding his seat from the Knesset's first election in 1949 until his retirement in 1986; he was also a founding member (1956) of the moderate Zionist National Religious Party (Mafdal) and a Cabinet minister under eight prime ministers over some 35 years (195186) (b. Jan. 31, 1909, Dresden, Ger.d. Oct. 15, 1999, Jerusalem, Israel). Byard, Jaki American jazz pianist whose improvising cleverly united many early and modern styles, from stride and swing to bebop; he was a mainstay of Boston jazz before he recorded with avant-garde groups and joined the Charles Mingus and Rahsaan Roland Kirk combos in the 1960s; he then led trios and the Apollo Stompers big band and taught at music conservatories (b. June 15, 1922, Worcester, Mass.d. Feb. 11, 1999, Queens, N.Y.). Byrd, Charlie American jazz musician who was schooled in both jazz and classical music; he played modern jazz on the (unamplified) Spanish guitar before the hit Stan GetzCharlie Byrd album Jazz Samba launched the bossa nova fad in 1962. Byrd went on to fuse jazz and Brazilian music in scores of graceful, lyrical albums (b. Sept. 16, 1925, Chuckatuck, Va.d. Dec. 2, 1999, Annapolis, Md.). Cabral de Melo Neto, Joo Brazilian poet and diplomat (b. Jan. 9, 1920, Recife, Braz.d. Oct 9, 1999, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.), was considered one of the last great figures of the golden age of Brazilian poetry. Cabral, born to a distinguished family of landowners, had a brief stint as a public servant before he moved in 1940 to Rio de Janeiro. In 1942 he published his first collection of poems, Pedra do sono. Although his early work was marked by Surrealist and Cubist influences, his collection O engenheiro (1945) marked him as a leading voice of the Generation of '45 of post-World War II poets who brought a spare quality to their poetic style. In 1945 he joined the Brazilian diplomatic service and served in posts on four continents until his retirement in 1990. Cabral gained widespread national popularity with Morte e vida Severina (1955), a dramatic poem that made use of literatura de cordel, a popular narrative in verse. He was elected to the Brazilian Academy of Letters in 1968, the same year that his Poesias Completas was published. In 1990 Cabral was the recipient of Portugal's Cames Prize, and in 1992 he won both the Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the Queen Sofa Prize for Iberic Poetry. When Cabral lost most of his sight in 1994, he ceased writing poetry because he found that he could not separate his art from his visual perception. Cachaa, Carlos Brazilian songwriter who helped make samba Brazil's most popular form of music, earning the title King of Samba for his numerous songs about life in the Brazilian favelas, or shantytowns; in 1928 he helped found the influential Mangueira Samba School and Recreational Society, which sponsored a troupe that performed annually during Rio's Carnival celebrations (b. Aug. 2, 1902, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.d. Aug. 16, 1999, Rio de Janeiro). Cadmus, Paul American artist (b. Dec. 17, 1904, New York, N.Y.d. Dec. 12, 1999, Weston, Conn.), created paintings, drawings, and prints in a figurative, near-illustrational style that he maintained consistently for some 70 years even when it was not in favour with the art establishment. His works of social satire could sometimes provoke controversy, and one in particularThe Fleet's In, which included prostitutes and gay men along with the sailors whose antics it portrayed and, as a result, infuriated navy officialswas pulled from an exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., in 1934 and was not displayed publicly again until 1981. Cadmus decided upon a career in art when he was still a young boy and enrolled in art classes at New York City's National Academy of Design when he was 15. He studied there until 1926 and at the Art Students League for the following two years and then went to work at an advertising agency. Between 1931 and 1933 he lived with artist Jared French. The two traveled to the island of Majorca, Spain, and there Cadmus created the well-known paintings Shore Leave and YMCA Locker Room. Upon his return to the U.S., Cadmus gained employment with the Public Works of Art Project. It was for that program that he painted The Fleet's In. The nationwide publicity that resulted from the controversy surrounding that painting and otherssuch as Coney Island, displayed at New York's Whitney Museum of American Art in 1935 and interpreted by Brooklyn, N.Y., realtors as an insult to their neighbourhoodas well as from the cancellation of Cadmus's contract for a post office mural project because of the sardonicism of the scenes he sketched in 1936, fascinated the public, and in 1937 more than 7,000 people attended his first one-man show, at Midtown Galleries in New York City. Although the post-World War II art world paid Cadmus little attention, he continued working steadily. His work was represented in most American art museums, and he was included in several prestigious group shows over the years. Among other of his notable works were Sailors and Floosies (1938), The Seven Deadly Sins series (194549), and the Subway Symphony series (197576). In 1980 Cadmus was made an academician of the National Academy of Design. Calhoun, Rory American actor whose chance meeting with actor Alan Ladd led him to a career as the rugged hero of a number of B westerns in the 1950s; he also starred in the television series The Texan in 195860 and appeared on the soap opera Capitol from 1982 to 1987 (b. Aug. 8, 1922, Los Angeles, Calif.d. April 28, 1999, Burbank, Calif.). Callahan, Harry Morey American photographer (b. Oct. 22, 1912, Detroit, Mich.d. March 15, 1999, Atla

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