Meaning of YEAR IN REVIEW 2001: OBITUARY in English

Abel, Sidney Gerald Canadian ice hockey player and coach (b. Feb. 22, 1918, Melville, Sask.-d. Feb. 8, 2000, Farmington Hills, Mich.), was a longtime star with the Detroit Red Wings, helping the team to win three Stanley Cup titles (1943, 1950, 1952) and four consecutive regular-season titles (1949-52). Together with Gordie Howe and Ted Lindsay, he was a member of the "Production Line," Detroit's famed high-scoring trio. He began his professional career with the Red Wings in 1938 and played with the team-with the exception of three years during World War II, when he served in the Canadian military-until 1952, when he began a two-year stint as player-coach for the Chicago Blackhawks. He amassed career totals of 189 goals and 283 assists. He later served (1957-71) as coach of the Red Wings and was also a Red Wings radio and television broadcaster from 1976 to 1986. He was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1969. Abram, Morris Berthold American lawyer and civil and human rights advocate (b. June 19, 1918, Fitzgerald, Ga.-d. March 16, 2000, Geneva, Switz.), fought a 14-year battle all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court to overthrow a Georgia electoral rule that gave ballots cast by rural voters, most of whom were white, greater strength than those cast by urban, mostly black, voters. The Supreme Court's landmark 1963 declaration that the rule was unconstitutional struck a blow against segregation and upheld the principle of one voter, one vote. Abram graduated (1938) summa cum laude from the University of Georgia and was selected to be a Rhodes scholar, but Great Britain's entrance into World War II temporarily halted his plans to attend the University of Oxford. He instead enrolled in the University of Chicago Law School. Following graduation (1940) and military service, however, Abram did attend Oxford and earned bachelor's (1948) and master's (1953) degrees. Abram began his struggle against the Georgia electoral rule in 1949 and himself fell victim to it when, running on a desegregation platform, he failed in an attempt to become a Democratic Party nominee in the 1953 congressional election even though he carried a populous urban county. In 1961 Pres. John F. Kennedy appointed Abram the first general counsel to the Peace Corps, and he went on to serve on commissions and panels under four more presidents. He also served as national president of the American Jewish Committee (1963-68), chairman of the United Negro College Fund (1970-79), chairman of the National Conference on Soviet Jewry (1983-88), and chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations (1986-88). Abram was a partner at the law firm of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison from 1963 until 1983, except for two turbulent years (1968-70) during which he served as president of Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass., and in 1993 he became counsel to that law firm. Also in 1993, with Edgar M. Bronfman, Abram cofounded UN Watch, and he served as its chairman until his death. His autobiography, The Day Is Short, was published in 1982. Adderley, Nathaniel American cornetist-songwriter (b. Nov. 25, 1931, Tampa, Fla.-d. Jan. 2, 2000, Lakeland, Fla.), became a star in the 1959-75 quintet headed by his older brother, Cannonball Adderley, which was probably the most popular "soul jazz" group of its era. Although he began playing the trumpet in his teens, Nat switched in 1950 to the somewhat smaller cornet, playing it in the U.S. Army band that his brother led. After a year with Lionel Hampton's big band (1954-55), he played in Cannonball's first quintet (1956-57), then toured widely with J.J. Johnson's group and the Woody Herman band. Formed at the height of the popularity of hard bop, the second quintet, the Cannonball Adderley Quintet, in which Nat's warm, lyric improvising contrasted with his brother's flaring alto saxophone solos, was a success from the beginning. Meanwhile, Nat introduced his best-known tune, "Work Song," on one of his own albums in 1960; the song soon became a standard-Herb Alpert made a hit recording of it-and Nat's blues-drenched songs, including "Jive Samba" and "Sermonette," also became hits for Cannonball's group. The brothers collaborated on a musical about the mythical African American railroad man John Henry, originally recorded as "Big Man" (1975) and staged as Shout Up a Morning (1986). After Cannonball's death, Nat's retirement was only temporary; from 1976 he led his own groups, which usually included a Cannonball-styled altoist. A favourite of audiences, in part for his good-humoured presentation, and of fellow musicians, Nat played on nearly 100 albums as a leader and sideman. Diabetes led to the amputation of a leg (1997), which effectively ended his career. Albert, Carl Bert American politician (b. May 10, 1908, McAlester, Okla.-d. Feb. 4, 2000, McAlester), served as speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1971 to 1976. He twice stood briefly next in line for the presidency-in 1973 after Spiro Agnew resigned as vice president and again in 1974 after the resignation of Pres. Richard M. Nixon. During his three decades (1946-76) in Congress, Albert played a key role in many behind-the-scenes negotiations and was instrumental in helping pass historic civil rights legislation during the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson. Alcock, George Eric Deacon British schoolteacher and amateur astronomer (b. Aug. 28, 1912, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, Eng.-d. Dec. 15, 2000, England), was ranked as one of the world's finest amateur astronomers; his 10 major discoveries exceeded the previous record of 8 discoveries made by 18th-century English astronomer Caroline Herschel. Despite the notorious vagaries of English weather, between 1959 and 1991 Alcock was credited with the identification of five novas (exploding stars) and five comets, notably Comet Alcock 1959 IV, Comet Alcock 1959 VI, and 1983 VII IRAS-Araki-Alcock, which he spotted on May 3, 1983, with 15 80-power binoculars through his bedroom window. Alcock, an avid stargazer from childhood, was also noted for his prodigious memory of star patterns and his exceptional ability to detect fine detail. He was made an MBE in 1979; in 1987 asteroid 3174 Alcock was named in his honour. A biography, Under an English Heaven: The Life of George Alcock, was published in 1996. Alla Rakha Khan Indian musician (b. April 29, 1919, Phagwal, Jammu province, India-d. Feb. 3, 2000, Mumbai , India), was a maestro of the tabla, small drums used in classical Indian music, and was the first tabla player to give solo concerts. Alla Rakha, who was awarded the honorific ustad ("master"), supplemented his virtuoso classical performances with occasional work in jazz, on the radio, and as music director for Hindi and Punjabi motion pictures. In the 1940s he began working with sitarist Ravi Shankar, and they later performed together in the West, including joint appearances at the Royal Festival Hall in London in 1958, the 1967 Monterey (Calif.) Pop Festival, and the legendary 1969 Woodstock Music Festival. Allen, Stephen Valentine Patrick William American entertainer, composer, and author (b. Dec. 26, 1921, New York, N.Y.-d. Oct. 30, 2000, Encino, Calif.), was a prolific, versatile, creative, and influential modern-day renaissance man. Although he could be considered to have made his greatest impact when he created and hosted what became The Tonight Show-the mold for television talk shows-he also composed thousands of songs (his best known: "This Could Be the Start of Something Big"), recorded about 40 albums, wrote newspaper columns and more than 50 books, engaged in political activism, and appeared in films (most notably, 1955's The Benny Goodman Story), in television variety and quiz shows and dramas, and on the Broadway stage. Allen's parents were vaudeville entertainers, and he often traveled with his mother when she toured after his father's death. He therefore attended a number of schools before they settled in Phoenix, Ariz., to ease his asthma. Allen attended Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa, and Arizona State Teachers College but dropped out and became a radio disc jockey and entertainer. Though drafted into World War II military service in 1943, he was released after a few months because of his asthma and returned to radio, first back in Phoenix and then in Los Angeles. His talent for humorous ad-libbing made him an audience favourite, and in 1950 he was given The Steve Allen Show on CBS television in New York City. In 1953 he began hosting a local NBC late-night talk show, Tonight, which became a network show the following year and was named The Tonight Show. Before Allen left the show in 1957, he instituted such present-day staples of late-night TV shows as the opening monologue, man-in-the-street interviews, and zany stunts. In the meantime, in 1956 Allen had begun a second incarnation of The Steve Allen Show on Sunday nights in competition with the popular Maverick and The Ed Sullivan Show. It ran until 1961. A third incarnation ran from 1962 to 1964 in syndication, and The Steve Allen Comedy Hour appeared in the early 1980s. Of all Allen's creations, he was most proud of the Emmy Award-winning series Meeting of Minds, which ran on the Public Broadcasting Service from 1977 to 1981. In it, actors portrayed famous persons from various eras engaging in roundtable discussions of philosophy and important issues, with Allen as moderator. In recent years Allen had taken up a crusade against the vulgarity he saw as increasingly permeating popular culture, and at the time of his death he was finishing work on his 54th book, Vulgarians at the Gate. Amarnath, Lala Indian cricketer (b. Sept. 11, 1911, Lahore, India-d. Aug. 5, 2000, New Delhi, India), was a popular and flamboyant all-rounder and the first cricket captain of independent India after partition. In a solid first-class career (1929-64) Amarnath, a right-handed batsman and medium-pace bowler, made 10,323 runs (average 41.62), including 31 centuries, and took 457 wickets, despite his unusual wrong-foot delivery. Between 1933 and 1952 he played in 24 Test matches (15 as captain), scoring 878 runs (average 24.38) and capturing 45 wickets. He achieved status as a national hero overnight on Dec. 17, 1933, when he scored 118 runs against England in his Test debut-his only Test century and the first ever by an Indian batsman. Amarnath's three sons were also successful cricketers, with two, Surinder and Mohinder, representing India at Test level. Amichai, Yehuda Israeli poet (b. May 3, 1924, Wrzburg, Ger.-d. Sept. 22, 2000, Jerusalem, Israel), wrote in Hebrew and combined the ancient Jewish poetic tradition with elements of Modernism, including colloquial language and references to various aspects of 20th-century life. He was a patriot who was sometimes critical of Israeli militarism, and he championed the individual in a collectivist society. Frequently called the national poet of Israel, he was extraordinarily popular, and his collections of poetry were best-sellers. He also published novels, plays, short stories, children's books, and essays. He was born Yehuda Pfeuffer, but his family changed its name to Amichai (Hebrew for "my people lives") when it immigrated to Jerusalem in 1936. Amichai served in North Africa in the Jewish Brigade of the British army during World War II, and it was at this time that he first read T.S. Eliot and W.H. Auden. Both had profound effects on his poetics, and he later became a friend of Auden. After the war he joined the Zionist underground, and he fought in the Arab-Israeli wars of 1948, 1956, and 1973. In the mid-1950s he graduated from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where he studied literature and biblical studies and where he later taught. His first collection of poetry, Akhshav u-ve-yamim aherim ("Now and in Other Days"), was published in 1955. Some critics considered his final collection, Patuah sagur patuah (1998; Open Closed Open, 2000), to be his masterpiece. Amichai's works were translated into many other languages, often through the influence of poet friends such as Ted Hughes who were admirers of his work, and he traveled widely to give readings, particularly in the U.S. He received a number of honours and was often nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature. Anderson, Jervis Jamaican-born American biographer and journalist (b. Oct. 1, 1932, Jamaica-found dead Jan. 7, 2000, New York, N.Y.), was a staff writer for The New Yorker from 1968 to 1998 and wrote highly praised biographies of African American civil rights leaders Bayard Rustin and A. Philip Randolph. Serialized in The New Yorker in 1972, Anderson's profile of Randolph appeared in book form as A. Philip Randolph: A Biographical Portrait in 1973. Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen (1997) became a best-seller. Anhalt, Edward American screenwriter and motion picture producer (b. March 28, 1914, New York, N.Y.-d. Sept. 3, 2000, Los Angeles, Calif.), won Academy Awards for best screenplay for Panic in the Streets (1950; co-written with his wife, Edna Anhalt) and Becket (1964); he was especially skilled at adapting stage plays and works of literature for the movies and, in addition to Becket, counted The Member of the Wedding (1952), Luther (1973), The Man in the Glass Booth (1975), and The Holcroft Covenant (1985) among those credits. Antley, Chris American jockey (b. Jan. 6, 1966, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.-found dead Dec. 2, 2000, Pasadena, Calif.), won a total of 3,480 races in his career, including the Kentucky Derby in 1991 and 1999. Antley quickly established himself as one of the world's leading jockeys after making his professional debut in 1985; two years later, he became the first jockey ever to win nine races in a single day. In 1999 he rode Charismatic to victory in the Preakness Stakes as well as in the Kentucky Derby but fell short of capturing the Triple Crown when Charismatic pulled up lame and finished third in the Belmont Stakes. Antley was found dead in his home after suffering what authorities described as a severe head trauma probably caused by falling down while under the influence of drugs. Archer, Violet Balestreri Canadian composer (b. April 24, 1913, Montreal, Que.-d. Feb. 21, 2000, Ottawa, Ont.), was an accomplished musician whose large body of work encompassed a variety of genres. She was also a highly regarded musical educator. After studying composition at McGill University, Montreal, and Yale University, Archer began a long teaching career, which included stints at North Texas State College from 1950 to 1953 and the University of Oklahoma from 1953 to 1961. She returned to Canada in 1962, where she taught theory and composition at the University of Alberta until her retirement from teaching in 1978. Although Archer's compositions never attained widespread popularity, they were critically acclaimed, and by the time of her death, interest in her work was growing. Her compositions included, most notably, the virtuosic Piano Concerto No. 1 (1956), the comic opera Sganarelle (1973), and Evocations (1987), a piano and orchestral work inspired by Inuit and Tsimshian melodies. Archer was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada in 1983. Arguedas Mendieta, Antonio Bolivian political leader (b. 1929?, Bolivia-d. Feb. 22, 2000, La Paz, Bol.), rose to become Bolivia's minister of the interior during the 1964-69 military dictatorship of Gen. Ren Barrientos; recruited by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in 1965, he aided efforts to defeat a guerrilla group in eastern Bolivia led by Che Guevara. Following the capture and execution of Guevara in 1967, Arguedas became disenchanted with the Barrientos regime and secretly arranged for copies of Guevara's diaries to be smuggled to Cuba; the subsequent publication of the diaries, which detailed the relentless pursuit of the guerrilla leader by Bolivian special forces, was perceived as a major embarrassment for Barrientos. Fearful of being exposed, Arguedas fled to Chile and eventually to Cuba, where he spent most of the 1970s. He later returned to Bolivia, and by the late 1990s he had reportedly become a terrorist. He died when a bomb he was carrying exploded. Arron, Henck (Alphonsus Eugne) Surinamese politician (b. April 25, 1936, Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana [now Suriname]-d. Dec. 4, 2000, Alphen aan den Rijn, Neth.), served as prime minister (1973-80) of Suriname and was instrumental in leading the nation to independence from The Netherlands. Arron worked as a banker before entering politics in 1963. He was elected to the Staten (Surinamese legislature) that year as a member of the Suriname National Party (NPS), and he became the party's leader in 1970. The NPS was composed mainly of Creoles (Surinamese of African descent), and it favoured independence from The Netherlands. Under Arron's guidance, the NPS won the elections of 1973, and he became prime minister. He secured independence for Suriname in 1975 after two years of negotiations with The Netherlands. Arron was reelected in 1977, but his efforts to stem Suriname's calamitous economic decline following independence were unsuccessful; a high rate of unemployment was a major cause of his downfall. A coup was staged by discontented junior army officers in February 1980. Arron was arrested and was released in 1981, after which he returned for a time to his banking activities. Elections in 1987 ousted the military regime, and Arron became vice president, but the government was again deposed by the military in 1990. Declining health forced Arron to leave politics shortly thereafter. He died of a heart attack while visiting The Netherlands. Aspinall, John Victor British gambling tycoon and zoo owner (b. June 11, 1926, Delhi, India-d. June 29, 2000, London, Eng.), established two wild-animal parks in the English countryside and financed them with profits he made from running private London gambling clubs, some of which he established during a period when such clubs were illegal. Despite financial and legal difficulties, as well as several fatal attacks on zookeepers, Aspinall's parks housed more than 1,000 exotic animals and had considerable success with breeding programs for such species as snow leopards, gorillas, elephants, black rhinos, and, especially, Siberian tigers. Aspinall also wrote on conservation issues, notably The Best of Friends (1976). Assad, Hafez al- Syrian head of state (b. Oct. 6, 1930, Qardaha, Syria-d. June 10, 2000, Damascus, Syria), as president of Syria from 1971 until his death, brought stability to the country and established it as a powerful presence in the Middle East. In 1946 Assad joined the Syrian wing of the Ba'th Party as a student activist. He graduated from the Syrian Military Academy at Hims in 1955 and became an air force pilot. Stationed in Egypt from 1959 to 1961, he and other military officers formed a secret committee and plotted to seize power in Damascus. After the Ba'thists took control of the Syrian government in 1963, Assad became commander of the air force. In 1966, having taken part in a coup that overthrew the civilian leadership of the party and sent its founders into exile, he became minister of defense. After Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel in the Six-Day War (June 1967), Assad engaged in a protracted power struggle with Salah al-Jadid-chief of staff of the armed forces, Assad's political mentor, and effective leader of Syria. In November 1970 Assad assumed power, arresting Jadid and other members of the government. He became prime minister and in 1971 was elected president. With Soviet aid, Assad set about building up the Syrian military. Political dissenters were eliminated by arrest, torture, and execution. A new alliance with Egypt culminated in a surprise attack on Israel in October 1973, but Egypt's unexpected cessation of hostilities exposed Syria to military defeat. In 1976, with Lebanon racked by a civil war, Assad dispatched several divisions to that country and secured their permanent presence there as part of a peacekeeping force sponsored by the Arab League. After Israel's invasion and occupation of southern Lebanon in 1982-85, Assad was able to reassert control of the country, eventually compelling Lebanese Christians to accept constitutional changes granting Muslims equal representation in the government. In the 1980s he supported Iran in its war against Iraq, and he readily joined the U.S.-led alliance against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War of 1990-91. This cooperation resulted in more cordial relations with Western governments, which previously had condemned his alleged sponsorship of radical Palestinian and Muslim terrorist groups based in Lebanon and Syria. Assad sought to establish peaceful relations with Israel in the mid-1990s, but his repeated call for the return of the Golan Heights stalled the talks. In 1998 he cultivated closer ties with Iraq in light of Israel's growing strategic partnership with Turkey. Assad's death from heart failure set off days of national mourning in Syria. Auriol, Jacqueline-Marie-Thrse-Suzanne French pilot (b. Nov. 5, 1917, Challans, France-d. Feb. 12, 2000, Paris, France), overcame a near-fatal 1949 crash, numerous operations to repair her shattered face, and the reservations of her powerful father-in-law, French Pres. Vincent Auriol, to become one of France's most successful test pilots in the 1950s. Between 1951 and her retirement in 1963, she competed with American Jacqueline Cochran for the title of fastest woman in the world, setting five world records and finishing her career second to Cochran with a top speed of 2,029 km/h (1,261 mph). Auriol was made an officer of the Legion of Honour and published her autobiography, Vivre et voler, in 1968. Austin, Henry Wilfred British tennis player (b. Aug. 26, 1906, London, Eng.-d. Aug. 26, 2000, Coulsdon, Surrey, Eng.), was one of the world's highest-ranked players in the 1930s, twice a finalist at the All-England (Wimbledon) Championships (1932 and 1938), and a pivotal member of the British team that won four consecutive Davis Cups (1933-36), but he was best known as the first player to break with tradition (in 1932) and appear on court in shorts instead of the conventional white flannel trousers. Autant-Lara, Claude French motion picture director (b. Aug. 5, 1903, Luzarches, France-d. Feb. 5, 2000, Antibes, France), was one of the world's leading directors in the post-World War II era, winning international acclaim with his classic film Le Diable au corps (1947). Educated in London and Paris, he first found work in the movie industry as a set decorator for Marcel L'Herbier's Le Carnaval des vrits (1919). Autant-Lara's first short film, Faits divers (1923), was made while he was an assistant director to Ren Clair. Later he worked in Hollywood directing French versions of American movies. It was not until 1933, however, that he directed his first feature, Ciboulette. Two films that Autant-Lara completed in 1942-Le Mariage de chiffon and Lettres d'amour-prefigured his work in Le Diable au corps. Adapted from a novel by Raymond Radiguet, Le Diable au corps was the story of an adolescent boy's affair with a married woman whose husband was away at war. Both its subject matter and its antiwar, antiestablishment sentiments made it Autant-Lara's most popular-and most controversial-film. In the 1950s Autant-Lara's preference for literary adaptations and his emphasis on psychological realism, tight scripting, and carefully delivered dialogue fell out of fashion. He nonetheless continued to make motion pictures, directing his last film, Gloria, in 1977. In the late 1980s he again stirred controversy, this time in the world of politics. He became a member of the far-right National Front and was elected to the European Parliament in 1989. That same year, after a magazine quoted several of his anti-Semitic remarks, he resigned his seat. Baarova, Lida Czech actress (b. 1914, Prague, Austro-Hungarian Empire [now Czech Rep.]-d. Oct. 27, 2000, Salzburg, Austria), appeared in a number of successful German films in the 1930s, including Barcarole (1935) and Die Stunde der Versuchung (1936), but her career was damaged by her affair with Nazi minister of propaganda Joseph Goebbels. The affair ended when Adolf Hitler refused to give Goebbels permission to divorce his wife and marry Baarova. After the war she was suspected of being a Nazi spy and spent two years in jail. She later returned to acting and appeared in Spanish and Italian films, including Federico Fellini's I vitelloni (1953). Baden Powell Brazilian guitarist and composer (b. Aug. 6, 1937, Varre-e-Sai, Braz.-d. Sept. 26, 2000, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.), helped popularize the bossa nova ("new trend"), a romantic, sensual style of the 1950s and '60s that was created from a fusion of the samba, a Brazilian dance music, and cool jazz. He came from a musical family, and his father, who was a troop leader, named his son for Robert S.S. Baden-Powell, the British founder of the Boy Scouts. The boy was a child prodigy and was playing on Rdio Naconal by the age of eight. Beginning in his early teens Baden Powell played professionally. In the mid-1950s he met Antnio Carlos Jobim, one of the best known of the bossa nova composers; he encouraged Baden Powell to devote himself to the new music. Perhaps Baden Powell's most distinctive contribution to the bossa nova style was the incorporation of African influences, derived from his study of African rituals in Brazil. In 1964 he moved to Europe, first to Paris and later to West Germany, and he subsequently recorded with such jazz musicians as Stan Getz, Herbie Mann, and Stphane Grappelli. Baden Powell returned to Brazil in 1988 and later underwent a religious conversion that led him to stop performing certain of his compositions. "Deve Ser Amor" and "Samba Triste" were his first major hits. More than 50 of his compositions were written in collaboration with the poet Vincius de Moraes. These included "Samba de Beno," used on the sound track of Claude Lelouch's 1966 film Un Homme et une femme (A Man and a Woman), "Berimbau," "Samba em Preludio," and "Bom Dia, Amigo." Bandaranaike, Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Sri Lankan political leader (b. April 17, 1916, Ratnapura, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka]-d. Oct. 10, 2000, Gampaha, Sri Lanka), became in 1960 the first woman in the world to serve as a prime minister. She was a member of a family dynasty that dominated Sri Lankan politics in the last half of the 20th century. Born Sirimavo Ratwatte, she married S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, an official in the United National Party (UNP), in 1940. Her husband formed the nationalist Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) in 1951 and became prime minister in 1956. Three years later he was assassinated, and in the following year his widow replaced him, serving as prime minister from 1960 to 1965. She became a leader in the movement of nonaligned nations in the 1960s. During a second term, from 1970 to 1977, Bandaranaike moved to the left and nationalized a number of industries and institutions. She used the military to put down a Marxist uprising, transformed the country (renamed Sri Lanka in 1972) into a republic with an executive presidency, favoured Buddhism, and made Sinhalese the official language. These last acts further angered the Tamil-speaking Hindu minority and helped lead to a bloody civil war beginning in the early 1980s. In 1980 she was expelled from Parliament and banned from holding office for seven years, although her rights were restored in 1986. She lost a bid for the presidency in 1988, but her younger daughter, Chandrika Kumaratunga, who succeeded her as head of the SLFP, won the office in 1994 and appointed her mother prime minister, by this time a largely ceremonial post. Bandaranaike's son, Anura, defected to the opposition UNP when his sister took over the SLFP. Bandaranaike, suffering from ill health, resigned her post in August 2000 and died shortly after voting in parliamentary elections. Barbosa Lima Sobrinho, Alexandre Jos Brazilian journalist and politician (b. Jan. 22, 1897, Recife, Braz.-d. July 16, 2000, Rio de Janeiro, Braz.), was a longtime columnist for the daily newspaper Jornal do Brasil and head of the Brazilian Press Association for more than 25 years. After graduating from law school in 1917, Barbosa Lima went to work for Jornal do Brasil. He became the paper's editor in chief in 1926, the same year he assumed the leadership of the Brazilian Press Association. A socialist, Barbosa Lima was a leading critic of Brazil's military dictatorships and an outspoken advocate of measures to improve the social conditions of the country's workers. He also used his position to fight censorship and defend press freedom. Barbosa Lima made a number of forays into politics, serving as governor of the state of Pernambuco in the late 1940s and later serving three terms in Congress. In 1973 he ran unsuccessfully for vice president on a ticket headed by opposition leader Ulysses Guimares. Barbosa Lima's most significant political contribution came in 1992, however, when he helped organize a petition calling for the impeachment of Pres. Fernando Collor, who resigned amid corruption charges after impeachment proceedings began. By the end of his long career, Barbosa Lima had published more than 50 books and some 5,000 newspaper articles, the last of which appeared in Jornal do Brasil on the day he died. Pres. Fernando Henrique Cardoso declared three days of national mourning following Barbosa Lima's death. Barcelona, countess of Spanish royal (b. Dec. 23, 1910, Madrid, Spain-d. Jan. 2, 2000, Lanzarote, Canary Islands), was the mother of King Juan Carlos I and the wife of Don Juan de Borbn, who was compelled by strongman Gen. Francisco Franco to renounce his claim to the Spanish throne in favour of his son. Doa Mara, much admired for her charm and diplomacy, was credited with working behind the scenes to reconcile her husband and son. Bartali, Gino Italian cyclist (b. July 18, 1914, Ponte a Ema, near Florence, Italy-d. May 5, 2000, Ponte a Ema), became a national hero and helped unite Italy during a period of political upheaval when he won the 1948 Tour de France 10 years after he had first won cycling's premier event; despite having his 20-year career (1935-54) interrupted by World War II, the "Iron Man of Tuscany" won more than 180 other races, including the Giro d'Italia (three times), the Milan-San Remo race (four times), the Tour of Switzerland (twice), the Tour of Lombardy (three times), and the Italian national championships (four times). Bartel, Paul American director, screenwriter, and actor (b. Aug. 6, 1938, Brooklyn, N.Y.-d. May 13, 2000, New York, N.Y.), was perhaps best remembered for creating and starring in the black comedy Eating Raoul (1982), a cult classic that featured Paul and Mary Bland, a married couple who murder swingers by beating them over the head with a frying pan before robbing them. Bartel's quirky humour was reflected in such car-crash films as Death Race 2000 (1975) and Cannonball (1976), the erotic shorts The Secret Cinema (1966) and Naughty Nurse (1969), and Private Parts (1972), his first feature film. He stole the show portraying a director bent on sensationalizing productions ("spice up the crucifixion scene") in Joe Dante's Hollywood Boulevard (1976) and had bit parts in such films as The Usual Suspects (1995), Basquiat (1996), and Billy's Hollywood Screen Kiss (1998). His last role was as Osric in an adaptation of Hamlet (2000). Baskin, Leonard American sculptor and graphic artist (b. Aug. 15, 1922, New Brunswick, N.J.-d. June 3, 2000, Northampton, Mass.), was a master sculptor, wood-carver, and etcher who achieved prominence with his bleak but impressive portrayals of the human figure. After studying in the U.S. and Europe, Baskin held his first one-man show in New York City in 1939. He taught at Smith College, Northampton, Mass., from 1953 to 1974 and at Hampshire College, Amherst, Mass., from 1984 to 1994. Baskin designed monumental figures in bronze, limestone, wood, and relief. He often portrayed artists (Blake, 1955; Barlach Dead, 1959), scenes of death (Hanged Man, 1956), and biblical subjects (Prodigal Son, 1976; Ruth and Naomi, 1978). Baskin imbued his representations of the human figure with qualities of spiritual death, decay, and vulnerability, which he felt characterized the condition of humankind in the 20th century. In his woodcuts he developed a distinctively wiry and nervous linearity; Man of Peace (1952) and Everyman were among his best-known woodcuts. Baskin used many of his woodcuts and etchings to illustrate books printed by Gehenna Press, which he owned. Several of his sculptures were also used in public memorials, including the Holocaust Memorial, Ann Arbor, Mich., dedicated in 1994, and the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, Washington, D.C., dedicated in 1997. Among his numerous honours, Baskin was presented the Gold Medal of the National Academy of Arts and Letters in 1969. Bassani, Giorgio Italian writer and editor (b. March 4, 1916, Bologna, Italy-d. April 13, 2000, Rome, Italy), skillfully presented the plight of Jews of the Ferrara community in Fascist-era Italy in his award-winning 1962 novel Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini (The Garden of the Finzi-Continis, 1965). Wildly popular, the book was translated into several languages and made into a movie that won the 1971 Academy Award for best foreign film. Il giardino dei Finzi-Contini was not, however, Bassani's only claim to fame. He won Italy's Strega Prize in 1956 for his short-story collection Cinque storie ferraresi (Five Stories of Ferrara, 1971). While working as an editor at the Feltrinelli publishing company, he secured the manuscript for Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's celebrated Il gattopardo (1958; The Leopard, 1960), a novel that other publishers had rejected because they thought the story was too old-fashioned. Besides his notable contributions to literature, Bassani also led an active public life. In 1955 he worked together with other Italian intellectuals to found Italia Nostra, an environmental protection and historic preservation society. From 1957 to 1967 he acted as vice president of RAI, the Italian national broadcasting network. Bell, Ken Canadian photographer (b. July 30, 1914, Toronto, Ont.-d. June 26, 2000, Gibsons, B.C.), was one of Canada's most accomplished photographers. Bell documented Canada's participation in World War II while serving in the Canadian Army Film and Photo Unit; his war pictures were housed permanently at the National Archives of Canada in Ottawa. After the war, Bell freelanced for numerous Canadian publications, including the news magazine Maclean's. He also served as the official photographer of the National Ballet of Canada. Bell published many books, including The Way We Were (1988) and, with historian Desmond Morton, The Royal Canadian Military Institute-100 Years, 1890-1990 (1990). Bell twice won the Professional Photographers of Canada's Photographer of the Year Award, in 1965 and 1966, and received the Canadian Association of Photographers and Illustrators Lifetime Achievement Award in 1986. Beneke, Tex American musician and band leader (b. Feb. 12, 1914, Fort Worth, Texas-d. May 30, 2000, Costa Mesa, Calif.), played tenor saxophone solos in a Coleman Hawkins-inspired manner, sang hit songs such as "I Got a Gal in Kalamazoo" and "Chattanooga Choo Choo," and appeared in the films Sun Valley Serenade (1941) and Orchestra Wives (1942) with the most popular of all swing bands, the Glenn Miller Orchestra during 1938-42; after Miller's death, Beneke briefly led the Miller ghost band, before fronting from 1950 his own big band, which played in a Miller-derived style. Benson, (Dorothy) Mary South African writer and antiapartheid activist (b. Dec. 8, 1919, Pretoria, S.Af.-d. June 20, 2000, London, Eng.), rejected her privileged upbringing as a white in South Africa to campaign against her country's racial policies. She was a cofounder and secretary (1952-56) of the London-based antiapartheid Africa Bureau and secretary (1957) of the defense fund set up for Nelson Mandela and others. Benson, who lived in voluntary exile in London from the mid-1960s, was also the author of a history of the African National Congress, the authorized biography Nelson Mandela (1986), and a candid autobiography, A Far Cry: The Making of a South African (1989). Berry, Walter Austrian opera and concert singer (b. April 8, 1929, Vienna, Austria-d. Oct. 27, 2000, Vienna), was a world-renowned bass baritone whose interpretations of the German operatic and song repertory were highly praised. He joined the Vienna State Opera in 1950 and debuted two years later at the Salzburg Festival, where he performed regularly. Berry developed a repertory of more than 100 operatic roles, including Don Alfonso in Mozart's Cos fan tutte and Ochs in Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier. Berry also established a strong reputation as a lieder singer. Besides appearances in Vienna and Salzburg, he sang 89 performances at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City from 1966 to 1978. Bertolucci, Attilio Italian poet, critic, and translator (b. Nov. 18, 1911, San Lazzaro di Parma, Italy-d. June 14, 2000, Rome, Italy), created lyrical verse that was often based on the details of his family's life and especially his childhood. A sense of anxiety, which was present in the writer's own personality, was a common element in his poetry. Born to farmers, he published his first volume of poems-Sirio (1929)-when he was not yet 18 years old. He studied law at the University of Parma (1931-35) but did not graduate and then took art history classes at the University of Bologna (1935-38). To support himself and his family, he taught, reviewed films and other arts for newspapers, worked in radio and television and in publishing, and contributed to a number of magazines. In 1951 there appeared La capanna indiana (1951), a collection dealing with the search for privacy in a difficult world; it won the Viareggio Prize. La camera da letto, first published in 1984, won Bertolucci a second Viareggio Prize when it was released in an expanded version in 1988. An autobiographical account of his family in verse, it became his best-known work, and the poet read it aloud on a seven-hour television program. Other major volumes of poetry included Fuochi in novembre (1934) and Viaggio d'inverno (1971). Translations by Charles Tomlinson published in Selected Poems in 1993 helped introduce Bertolucci to English readers. As a translator himself, he was partial to the work of such French writers as Charles Baudelaire and Marcel Proust and to a number of British and American writers, especially Thomas Hardy. Both of Bertolucci's sons, Bernardo and Giuseppe, became successful filmmakers. Bloch, Konrad Emil German-born American biochemist (b. Jan. 21, 1912, Neisse, Ger. [now Nysa, Pol.]-d. Oct. 15, 2000, Burlington, Mass.), conducted research to determine how the body creates cholesterol, work that earned him a share, together with Feodor Lynen, of the 1964 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Bloch's studies helped to reveal that cholesterol, a substance that occurs naturally in cells, results from the biosynthesis of acetic acid. The discovery led to a heightened awareness of cholesterol's role in some circulatory diseases and to the development of drugs that lowered cholesterol in the blood. Bloch earned a degree (1934) in chemical engineering from the Technische Hochschule, Munich, Ger. Nazi oppression kept Bloch, a Jew, from continuing his studies, so he first went to Switzerland and, in 1936, to the U.S., where he earned a doctorate in biochemistry at Columbia University, New York City. His cholesterol studies began at Columbia, and in 1942, along with David Rittenberg, he noted that a series of 30 or more chemical reactions took place in transforming acetic acid into cholesterol. He moved to the University of Chicago, where he served as a professor (1946-54) before being named the Higgins Professor of Biochemistry at Harvard University; he held the post until his retirement in 1982. Bloch also served as a professor in the School of Public Health at Harvard (1979-84) and was chairman of the biochemistry department (1968-72). He was also the author of Blondes in Venetian Paintings, the Nine-Banded Armadillo, and Other Essays in Biochemistry (1994). Bloch was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1988. Boon, Alan Wheatley British book editor (b. Sept. 28, 1913, London, Eng.-d. July 29, 2000, Leicester, Eng.), built Mills & Boon, a small family publishing house cofounded by his father in 1909, into a byword for the genre of formulaic romantic novels

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