Meaning of EXTERNAL in English

EXTERNAL

adjective

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

foreign/external affairs (= events in other countries )

the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

outside/external influence (= happening from outside a country or a situation )

They must make their own decisions, free from external influence.

The US remains the biggest outside influence on the country.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADVERB

as

In Middle-earth, then, both good and evil function as external powers and as inner impulses from the psyche.

Motivation for learning is viewed as external .

And both classes may include genes that originated as external , invading parasites.

Unintelligent control appears as external domination.

It is modified continuously as external data is received and transformed into information.

The housewife refers to them as external obligations to which she feels a deep need to conform.

So classes and nations fight it out, and conflict escalates as external authority is removed.

■ NOUN

affair

We can see the results of this in both the internal and external affairs of the house.

The rule protected States from intervention by other States in their external affairs and maintained the inherent bilateralism of international law.

The Governor, representing the sovereign, is responsible for external affairs , defence and internal security.

agency

In achieving these results, the college acknowledges the benefits of working in partnership with several external agencies .

Inevitably review plays a great part in the process of quality control by external agencies .

He feels that there is no way that an external agency can obtain the feel of a market place like Lloyd's.

The existence of a partnership has also provided an appropriate forum through which external agencies can be channelled.

During this period the system will have to be backed-up either by your previous in-house production methods or by external agencies .

Referral to an assessment panel may come from staff or parents or external agencies .

Do schools make the best use of external agencies ?

Could they liaise more with external agencies to develop a co-ordinated programme which makes the best use of their respective strengths?

appearance

The many enchanting designs from that period are almost wholly devoted to external appearance , to cottages as features in the landscape.

Finally, some explanation could be given for the long-known facts of the external appearance of crystals and their properties.

Conservation Ruberlok is applied internally to the underside of the roof leaving the external appearance unchanged.

They are often indistinguishable in external appearance from the larger nonconformist chapels in the next street.

Nobody knows how many different species there might be, even in a taxonomy based on external appearance .

Today Glascoed's external appearance is largely unchanged and its scale is as awesome as ever.

Remember that the success behind this unit relies on a convincing external appearance .

auditor

The proposals also aim to overcome the present problems relating to the independence, accountability and legal liability of external auditors .

An external auditor will need to carry out detailed checking of records and procedures.

For this reason a change of name is proposed from external auditors to external assessors.

An external auditor must decide the scope of the work to be undertaken to discharge his or her duties.

In this connection an external auditor will wish to consider what reliance should be placed on an internal audit.

Review by another lawyer File audits Quality standards are monitored by internal and external auditors .

And, in practice, the external auditor will take account of this in carrying out the statutory audit.

However, because the ultimate responsibility is given to the external auditor , the role of the internal auditor is not emphasized.

benefit

For instance volunteer groups create external benefits by improving the appearance of the environment, through best-kept village competitions or reclaiming old canals.

Such benefits and costs are called spillover or external benefits and costs.

Those provisions covered in-house benefits as well as external benefits.

Goods which are completely rivalrous, by definition, can not yield external benefits .

Some goods can give private and external benefits .

These external benefits are enjoyed by all and so are non-rivalrous.

Additional output of goods which yield external benefits can be obtained by giving subsidies to private sector firms for producing them.

In the case of external benefits this does not normally raise any major problems because such cost is an isolated expenditure.

cause

The external cause of the rhythms of urine formation comes from two sources: our diet and changes in posture.

The important role of the environment in modifying behaviour, the external cause , has already been described.

We try to establish what caused it - was it an internal or an external cause?

The aim of this experiment is to study individuals under circumstances in which the external causes of rhythms are removed.

There is, however, a possible external cause to them as well as, or instead of, the internal cause.

The difficulty is that it is usually a mixture of both - in which case it all gets blamed on external causes .

Unfortunately for us, internal and external causes do not always co-operate.

circumstances

Given similar external circumstances , we might well have reacted as they have done, and we would have lost our children.

You are thrown into it by your personal sense of responsibility, combined with a complex set of external circumstances .

constraint

This is so because the former quite possibly face weaker external constraints and because management may not encounter such sophisticated incentive structures.

First, there is the external constraint structure.

Expert Systems Problem Solving/Minimisation Within a specific environment problems may be solved or they may only minimised depending upon external constraints imposed.

In short, choice is narrowed by internal as well as external constraints .

The results will provide deeper insight into the impact of external constraints and competing functional goals upon the firm's marketing effectiveness.

These areas of conduct have become more subject to self-constraint and less subject to external constraint .

control

Something is missing in this shift from internal to external control .

It is particularly susceptible to external control leading to dependence rather than internal growth.

Hierarchy simply served to protect the incompetent and the officious from external control through the mutual support of superiors and subordinates.

Another useful preliminary distinction is that between external control over sentencing discretion as opposed to self-regulation practised by sentencers themselves.

course

This foundation course is followed by the three-tier concept comprising shelf-help, in-house training and external courses.

Advantage should be taken of external courses where these can be shown to be relevant and cost effective.

debt

Despite this major problem, banks must endeavour to monitor the external debt position of countries.

However, providing foreign currency receipts from exports are available to service external debt , no real problems should arise.

A high ratio invariably means future output growth and, hopefully, improved external debt servicing capacity through increased exports.

Naturally, large external debts were incurred to banks, foreign governments and world agencies.

The overall external debt was US$6,900 million.

environment

It simply indicates that the focus of attention is our thoughts rather than our external environment .

There-fore, you often must convert or encode data from the external environment .

Attention is focused on the external environment and markets, rather than customers.

This activity will continue until the system breaks down internally or is subject to an intervention from the external environment .

The intact skin acts as a barrier between the internal and the external environment which contains many potentially harmful agents.

I feel that we can take control of our own destiny, no matter what the external environment says.

Their survival depends on how they respond to changes in the external environment .

event

Your jealousy is always triggered by some external event or happening.

The interactive nature of external events , and your emotional and physical reactions to them, can make work toxic.

Alternatively, an external event like the death of a loved one can precipitate change.

This year, external events are expected to drive the Hong Kong market.

You concentrate on external events only.

This process supplies the enterprise with evidence of its capability to succeed, regardless of external events and circumstances.

I could not affect external events , all I could change was my own response to them.

examination

The first two will be assessed for certification by external examination while Investigating is assessed internally.

Most of our pupils will be ready to sit the external examination in May of S5.

Because of the devolved nature of National Certificate assessment, much more feedback is available than from a traditional external examination .

More senior pupils in schools can use a word processor to write up projects or dissertations for internal or external examinations .

Historically, she has laid much greater stress than her continental neighbours on sophisticated external examinations at the end of compulsory schooling.

examiner

The subject examinations committee discusses moderations by the external examiner which may, of course, affect recommendations published in the examination booklet.

The paper is corrected and assessed by the teacher and by one external examiner .

Britain's teachers too would welcome more use of external examiners , to lighten their workload.

Others feel that double marking is essential in order to be fair to students and external examiners .

factor

Firstly, changing external factors meant that many plans became rapidly out of date and so they could never be implemented properly.

We are not internally controlled in our actions but more externally controlled, and one of the external factors is the guilt.

The proposition linking external factors to workshop behaviour rested on the first three studies.

We examine why the road to our project might be closed by internal and external factors .

A mixed picture emerged, characterised by a number of adverse external factors .

What has been done, and what is morally judged, is partly determined by external factors .

It is not influenced by external factors .

The truth is that behaviour is caused simultaneously by a combination of internal and external factors .

forces

An equilibrium achieved by balancing the internal and external forces along a continuous boundary will reveal the qualities of the skin.

Similar claims regarding violation of sovereignty are made by almost every state experiencing substantial political violence generated by internal or external forces .

Any assessment of Britain's economic performance has to take account of these powerful external forces .

It helps these organizations ward off external forces and the prospect of change.

At issue is whether these apparent climate shifts are driven by internal or external forces .

The play portrays a good marriage torn apart by external forces .

While internal forces were causing the expansion of the School, external forces were once again working to contract it.

influence

Eating habits have changed under external influences , and it is not always easy for farming to adapt to such changes.

First, remove the external influences to the maximum extent possible.

The autonomic nervous system disperses and concentrates pigment throughout the body after external influences such as fear or temperature change.

Here, networks use no external influences to adjust their weights.

He saw that the alternative was to suppose that cells become different because they are exposed to different external influences .

The rhythm is responding to an external influence that has not been controlled in the experimental protocol.

It is quite possible that the Wandjina figures owe their origin to external influence .

information

In the format for the interviews, the external information was divided into five categories as listed below.

He is joined by Peter Fairbairn, 54, who has been appointed an external information technology consultant.

Again, insufficient external information was raised as a difficulty, especially among less profitable organisations.

Strategic direction and decision making are about choosing the right road, and they need a high degree of external information .

It also provides access to many external information services.

End user specified external information . 3.

object

The senses, the imagination, and the judgment are the natural human powers concerned with external objects .

We accept that the matter of reception of external objects by the senses is roughly universal.

So what he says about external objects may be false in spite of being founded on observation.

False perception can arise only if the nervous system has spontaneous activity independently of any causative external object .

According to this conception, ideas may be internal sensations like pain; they may be perceptions of external objects and their qualities.

power

In Middle-earth, then, both good and evil function as external powers and as inner impulses from the psyche.

Such a piece of plutonium can maintain high temperatures without any external power supply, controls, or monitoring for many years.

The negotiations with external powers were expected to be much more difficult.

Accusations of cheating by the use of borrowed external power could easily be met.

I intend to use an external power filter.

They don't require an external power source, but are expensive and you can't use them with a desktop.

There are connections for an external power amplifier or powered subwoofer.

Many fishkeepers purchase an external power filter and use it for years with the same media.

pressure

The securities industry also demonstrates particularly well the dangers of going international as a result of external pressure rather than internally-perceived opportunities.

Q: Were you under tremendous external pressure to reach a deal?

The overwhelming temptation and the external pressures will inevitably lead the other way; to take a quick decision and move on.

There were many new external pressures to be considered.

Secondly, each system is able to respond to internal and external pressures , and indeed must do so.

It is small wonder that he sought quiet and freedom from external pressure to follow his inner vision.

Pressures were transmitted to external pressure transducers and recorded on a polygraph.

What weight is to be attached to environmental and other external pressures in understanding how its members live together?

reality

The individual suspends his critical judgement and involvement in external reality to becoming passively absorbed in an imaginary world.

Still, these external realities inform rather than dictate the novel.

When it dropped her back inside the moment, the external realities of Kärtnerstrasse seemed a pastiche of the Middle Ages.

In these projections the movement is not of external reality inward but of the self outward.

These inner phantasies are projected into the external reality which is then re-incorporated as objective reality.

A stronger sense of self, based on a combination of external reality and internal ideas, begins to emerge.

Marx none the less believed that an external reality did exist, and that human consciousness could understand it.

As such, the subject contains internal objects, representations which determine the relation to what is misleadingly called external reality .

source

We shall in future also be making greater use of external sources of technology.

It simply services all the other spending funds, by borrowing from external sources and lending internally.

It is through this means that women can pull and attract others and draw into themselves energies from external sources .

Whether is it typed in via the keyboard, generated via mouse movements or information received from any other external source .

Advice on hardware is being obtained from external sources at present.

They are increasingly being funded by external sources , such as industry.

The communications network is designed to prevent unauthorised access to the system from external sources .

stimulus

As a result, they do not merely react to external stimuli , they do not simply behave, they act.

The trigger is usually some external stimulus , not necessarily an obvious one.

They give rise to behavioural responses to external stimuli that are enduring and consistent within a person's psychological constitution.

In the same way, external stimuli become incorporated into dreams in order to reduce their arousing effect.

Cognitive social psychologists assume that it is pan of human nature to reduce uncertainty by processing the external stimulus world through schemata.

In the past century the institutions and the external stimuli affecting the relation between finance and industry have been chopped and changed.

We do not initiate action; we react to a series of external stimuli .

More significantly, he also realized that this electrical activity was affected by external stimuli falling on the sense organs.

threat

Yet except in times of war or acute external threat , this seems rarely to happen in modern democratic societies.

But external threats can make for improbable subdivision bedfellows.

Democratic states, like all others, survive through their ability to withstand external threats .

A society, apparently working well, can stand impotent before its most domestic and external threats and important opportunities.

The external threat has been Assad's biggest problem - and perhaps his own guarantee of survival.

Both, however, were under external threat from barbarians more or less thinly disguised.

Numerous nations have not only experienced external threats , but have been torn apart by internal struggle as well.

use

Simple processing of forms and documents for internal and external use .

wall

There will be a rolling maintenance programme of the external walls and roof to ensure they continue to be wind and watertight.

Inside the Castle proper, buildings have external walls of stone some 9 inches thick for the most part.

However, to public and professionals alike many old buildings are still regarded as representing little more than four external walls .

At last there were just the external walls to be given a final coat of white paint.

The building's external walls are faced in ironstone setts with Bath stone dressings to corners and door and window openings.

The thin, external walls of the chimneys are porous and so oxygen from the outside atmosphere diffuses in.

The external walls of the churches are decorated simply by pilaster strips and corbelled string courses with arcading, as in Lombardy.

Beams enter the external walls only at the gables.

world

Attachment Although desires are internal, they are all linked to the external world through objects.

They were free from all boredom and all responsibility; until they reached Saturn, the external world did not exist.

Both your internal and external world changed because some one spoke a few words.

The external world through which Bob Jones moves denies continuity as ruthlessly as does his inner one.

The ego is that part of the id which has through perception been modified by the external world .

Through assimilation and accommodation, the external world one experiences is organized and given structure.

A man of a few carefully-placed words, not to lose contact with the external world .

The only world which modern man considers at all is the external world of which his senses make him cognizant.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

external affairs

An external auditor is brought in to examine the accounts.

Dickins has been resisting external pressure to resign as the head of the organization.

Most backpacks today have internal rather than external frames

The external walls of the castle are beginning to crumble.

There are no external signs of injury.

Without external pressure, it is unlikely the civil rights abuses would have stopped.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Apart from the domestic danger of a disenfranchised population, there is an external danger also.

However, cultural forms themselves are essentially external to human beings as actors.

In their view, corporate strategies fail because they consider problems in the external environment but not those internal to the organization.

Internal or external filters have many fans.

Language itself is, however, learned through external transmission.

Vertebrates do it by means of a backbone and internal skeleton, arthropods achieve structural rigidity by means of a tough external skeleton or shell.

Williamson would stand as Exhibit A for changed external conditions.

Zeno believed that people could govern their actions without the need for external compulsion.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.