Meaning of VERTICAL in English
[ver.ti.cal] adj [MF or LL; MF, fr. LL verticalis, fr. L vertic-, vertex] (1559) 1 a: situated at the highest point: directly overhead or in the zenith b of an aerial photograph: taken with the camera pointing straight down or nearly so
2. a: perpendicular to the plane of the horizon or to a primary axis: upright b (1): located at right angles to the plane of a supporting surface (2): lying in the direction of an axis: lengthwise 3 a: relating to, involving, or integrating economic activity from basic production to point of sale "~ monopoly" b: of, relating to, or comprising persons of different status "the ~ arrangement of society" -- vertical n -- ver.ti.cal.i.ty n -- ver.ti.cal.ly adv -- ver.ti.cal.ness n syn vertical, perpendicular, plumb mean being at right angles to a base line. vertical suggests a line or direction rising straight upward toward a zenith "the side of the cliff is almost vertical". perpendicular may stress the straightness of a line making a right angle with any other line, not necessarily a horizontal one "the parallel bars are perpendicular to the support posts". plumb stresses an exact verticality determined (as with a plumb line) by earth's gravity "make sure that the wall is plumb".
Merriam-Webster English vocab. Английский словарь Merriam Webster. 2012