Meaning of VERTICAL in English

VERTICAL

transcription, транскрипция: [ ˈvər-ti-kəl ]

adjective

Etymology: Middle French or Late Latin; Middle French, from Late Latin verticalis, from Latin vertic-, vertex

Date: 1559

1.

a. : situated at the highest point : directly overhead or in the zenith

b. of an aerial photograph : taken with the camera pointing straight down or nearly so

2.

a. : perpendicular to the plane of the horizon or to a primary axis : upright

b.

(1) : located at right angles to the plane of a supporting surface

(2) : lying in the direction of an axis : lengthwise

3.

a. : relating to, involving, or integrating economic activity from basic production to point of sale

a vertical monopoly

b. : of, relating to, or comprising persons of different status

the vertical arrangement of society

• vertical noun

• ver·ti·cal·i·ty ˌvər-tə-ˈka-lə-tē noun

• ver·ti·cal·ly ˈvər-ti-k(ə-)lē adverb

• ver·ti·cal·ness -kəl-nəs noun

Synonyms:

vertical , perpendicular , plumb mean being at right angles to a base line. vertical suggests a line or direction rising straight upward toward a zenith

the side of the cliff is almost vertical

perpendicular may stress the straightness of a line making a right angle with any other line, not necessarily a horizontal one

the parallel bars are perpendicular to the support posts

plumb stresses an exact verticality determined (as with a plumb line) by earth's gravity

make sure that the wall is plumb

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate English vocabulary.      Энциклопедический словарь английского языка Merriam Webster.