Meaning of RUN in English

RUN

I. ˈrən verb

( ran ˈran ; also chiefly dialect run ; run ; run·ning )

Etymology: Middle English ronnen, alteration of rinnen, verbi. (from Old English iernan, rinnan & Old Norse rinna ) & of rennen, verbt., from Old Norse renna; akin to Old High German rinnan, verbi., to run, Sanskrit riṇāti he causes to flow, and probably to Latin rivus stream

Date: before 12th century

intransitive verb

1.

a. : to go faster than a walk ; specifically : to go steadily by springing steps so that both feet leave the ground for an instant in each step

b. of a horse : to move at a fast gallop

c. : flee , retreat , escape

dropped the gun and ran

d. : to utilize a running play on offense — used of a football team

2.

a. : to go without restraint : move freely about at will

let chickens run loose

b. : to keep company : consort

a ram running with ewes

ran with a wild crowd when he was young

c. : to sail before the wind in distinction from reaching or sailing close-hauled

d. : roam , rove

running about with no overcoat

3.

a. : to go rapidly or hurriedly : hasten

run and fetch the doctor

b. : to go in urgency or distress : resort

run s to mother at every little difficulty

c. : to make a quick, easy, or casual trip or visit

ran over to borrow some sugar

4.

a. : to contend in a race

b. : to enter into an election contest

will run for mayor

5.

a. : to move on or as if on wheels : glide

file drawers running on ball bearings

b. : to roll forward rapidly or freely

c. : to pass or slide freely

a rope run s through the pulley

d. : to ravel lengthwise

stockings guaranteed not to run

6. : to sing or play a musical passage quickly

run up the scale

7.

a. : to go back and forth : ply

the train run s between New York and Washington

b. of fish : to migrate or move in considerable numbers ; especially : to move up or down a river to spawn

8.

a. : turn , rotate

a swiftly running grindstone

b. : function , operate

the engine run s on gasoline

software that run s on her computer

9.

a.

(1) : to continue in force, operation, or production

the contract has two more years to run

the play ran for six months

(2) : to have a specified duration, extent, or length

the manuscript run s nearly 500 pages

b. : to accompany as a valid obligation or right

a right-of-way that run s with the land

c. : to continue to accrue or become payable

interest on the loan run s from July 1

10. : to pass from one state to another

run into debt

11.

a. : to flow rapidly or under pressure

b. : melt , fuse

c. : spread , dissolve

colors guaranteed not to run

d. : to discharge liquid (as pus or serum)

a running sore

12.

a. : to develop rapidly in some specific direction ; especially : to throw out an elongated shoot of growth

b. : to tend to produce or develop a specified quality or feature

they run to big noses in that family

13.

a. : to lie in or take a certain direction

the boundary line run s east

b. : to lie or extend in relation to something

c. : to go back : reach

d.

(1) : to be in a certain form or expression

the letter run s as follows

(2) : to be in a certain order of succession

14.

a. : to occur persistently

musical talent run s in the family

b.

(1) : to remain of a specified size, amount, character, or quality

profits were running high

(2) : to have or maintain a relative position or condition (as in a race)

ran third

running late

c. : to exist or occur in a continuous range of variation

shades run from white to dark gray

15.

a. : to spread or pass quickly from point to point

chills ran up her spine

b. : to be current : circulate

speculation ran rife

transitive verb

1.

a. : to cause (an animal) to go rapidly : ride or drive fast

b. : to bring to a specified condition by or as if by running

ran himself to death

c. : to go in pursuit of : hunt , chase

dogs that run deer

d. : to follow the trail of backward : trace

ran the rumor to its source

e. : to enter, register, or enroll as a contestant in a race

f. : to put forward as a candidate for office

g. : to carry (the football) on a running play

2.

a. : to drive (livestock) especially to a grazing place

b. : to provide pasturage for (livestock)

c. : to keep or maintain (livestock) on or as if on pasturage

3.

a.

(1) : to pass over or traverse with speed

(2) : to run on or over in athletic competition

run s the bases well

run the floor

b. : to accomplish or perform by or as if by running

ran a great race

run errands

c. : to slip or go through or past

run a blockade

run a red light

d. : to travel on (as a river) in a boat

run the rapids

4.

a. : to cause to penetrate or enter : thrust

ran a splinter into her toe

b. : stitch

c. : to cause to pass : lead

run a wire in from the antenna

d. : to cause to collide

ran his head into a post

e. : smuggle

run guns

5. : to cause to pass lightly or quickly over, along, or into something

ran her eye down the list

6.

a. : to cause or allow (as a vehicle or a vessel) to go in a specified manner or direction

ran the car off the road

b. : operate

run a lathe

c. : to direct the business or activities of : manage , conduct

run a factory

d. : to employ or supervise in espionage

run an agent

7.

a. : to be full of or drenched with

streets ran blood

b. : contain , assay

8.

a. : to cause to move or flow in a specified way or into a specified position

run cards into a file

b. : to cause to produce a flow (as of water)

run the faucet

also : to prepare by running a faucet

run a hot bath

9.

a. : to melt and cast in a mold

run bullets

b. : treat , process , refine

run oil in a still

run a problem through a computer

10. : to make oneself liable to : incur

ran the risk of discovery

11. : to mark out : draw

run a contour line on a map

12.

a. : to permit (as charges) to accumulate before settling

run a tab at the bar

— often used with up

ran up a large phone bill

b. : cost 1

rooms that run $50 a night

13.

a. : to produce by or as if by printing — usually used with off

ran off 10,000 copies of the first edition

b. : to carry in a printed medium : print

every newspaper ran the story

14.

a. : to make (a series of counts) without a miss

run 19 in an inning in billiards

b. : to lead winning cards of (a suit) successively

c. : to alter by addition

ran his record to six wins and four losses

15. : to make (a golf ball) roll forward after alighting

- run across

- run a fever

- run after

- run against

- run a tight ship

- run by

- run circles around

- run dry

- run interference

- run into

- run low on

- run one's mouth

- run riot

- run short

- run short of

- run the numbers

- run the table

- run to

- run upon

- run with

Usage:

The past tense run still survives in speech in southern England and in the speech especially of older people in some parts of the United States It was formerly used in literature, and was a standard variant in our dictionaries from 1828 until 1934. Grammarians have generally opposed it, and many people consider it nonstandard. Just about everybody uses ran in writing now.

II. noun

Date: 14th century

1.

a. : an act or the action of running : continued rapid movement

b. : a quickened gallop

c. : a migration of fish (as up or down a river) especially to spawn ; also : such fish in the process of migration

d. : a running race

a mile run

e. : a score made in baseball by a runner reaching home plate safely

f. : strength or ability to run

g. : a gain of a usually specified distance made on a running play in football

scored on a 25-yard run

also : a running play

h. : a sustained usually aggressive effort (as to win or obtain something)

making a run at the championship

2.

a. chiefly Midland : creek 2

b. : something that flows in the course of an operation or during a particular time

the first run of sap in sugar maples

3.

a. : the stern of the underwater body of a ship from where it begins to curve or slope upward and inward

b. : the direction in which a vein of ore lies

c. : a direction of secondary or minor cleavage : grain

the run of a mass of granite

d. : a horizontal distance (as that covered by a flight of steps)

e. : general tendency or direction

4. : a continuous period or series especially of things of identical or similar sort

a run of bad luck

as

a. : a rapid passage up or down a scale in vocal or instrumental music

b. : a number of rapid small dance steps executed in even tempo

c. : the act of making successively a number of successful shots or strokes ; also : the score thus made

a run of 20 in billiards

d. : an unbroken course of performances or showings

a long run on Broadway

e. : a set of consecutive measurements, readings, or observations

f. : persistent and heavy demands from depositors, creditors, or customers

a run on a bank

g. : sequence 2b

5. : the quantity of work turned out in a continuous operation

a press run of 10,000 copies

6. : the usual or normal kind, character, type, or group

the average run of students

7.

a. : the distance covered in a period of continuous traveling or sailing

b. : a course or trip especially if mapped out and traveled with regularity

c. : a news reporter's regular territory : beat

d. : freedom of movement in or access to a place or area

has the run of the house

8.

a. : the period during which a machine or plant is in continuous operation

b. : the use of machinery for a single set of processing procedures

a computer run

9.

a. : a way, track, or path frequented by animals

b. : an enclosure for domestic animals where they may feed or exercise

c. Australian

(1) : a large area of land used for grazing

a sheep run

(2) : ranch , station

run -holder

d. : an inclined passageway

10.

a. : an inclined course (as for skiing or bobsledding)

b. : a support (as a track, pipe, or trough) on which something runs

11.

a. : a ravel in a knitted fabric (as in hosiery) caused by the breaking of stitches

b. : a paint defect caused by excessive flow

12. plural but singular or plural in construction : diarrhea — used with the

• run·less -ləs adjective

- on the run

- run for one's money

III. adjective

Date: 1774

1.

a. : being in a melted state

run butter

b. : made from molten material : cast in a mold

run metal

2. of fish : having made a migration or spawning run

a fresh run salmon

3. : exhausted or winded from running

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate English vocabulary.      Энциклопедический словарь английского языка Merriam Webster.