Part of the U.S. Department of the Interior, the early beginnings of the Fish and Wildlife Service go back to 1871 when the federal government established the Commissioner of Fisheries. In 1896, the Division of Biological Survey was established within the Department of Agriculture. In 1939, these functions were transferred to the Department of the Interior. Then in 1940, these functions were formally consolidated and redesignated as the Fish and Wildlife Service. Further reorganization came in 1956 when the Fish and Wildlife Act created the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. An amendment to this act in 1974 designated the Bureau as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Today the USFWS consists of a headquarters in Washington, D.C., eight regional offices, and over 700 field units and installations. Included are more than 470 National Wildlife Refuges, comprising more than 90 million acres, 57 fish and wildlife research laboratories and field units, 43 cooperative research units at universities across the country, nearly 135 national fish hatcheries and fishery assistance stations, and a nationwide network of law enforcement agents and biologists. The functions of the USFWS primarily includes the following: (1) Acquires, protects and manages unique ecosystems necessary to sustain fish and wildlife, such as migratory birds and endangered species; (2) As specified in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) (1973), as amended, and in conjunction with the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), determines critical habitat and develops recovery plans for protected endangered and threatened species of plants and animals; (3) Operates fish hatcheries to support research, develop new techniques and fulfill the public demand for recreational fishing; (4) Operates wildlife refuges to provide, restore, and manage a national network of lands and waters sufficient in size, diversity and location to meet society's needs for areas where the widest possible spectrum of benefits associated with wildlife and wildlands is enhanced and made available; (5) Conducts fundamental research on fish, wildlife and their habitats to provide better management and produce healthier and more vigorous animals; also protects fish and wildlife from dislocation or destruction of their habitats; (6) Renders financial and professional assistance to states, through federal aid programs, for the enhancement and restoration of fish and wildlife resources; (7) Establishes and enforces regulations for the protection of migratory birds, marine mammals, fish and other non-endangered wildlife from illegal taking, transportation or sale within the United States or from foreign countries; and (8) Communicates information essential for public awareness and understanding of the importance of fish and wildlife resources, and changes reflecting environmental degradation that ultimately will affect the welfare of human beings. Also see National Wildlife Refuge System, Endangered Species Act (ESA), Endangered Species, Threaten Species, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

Environmental engineering English vocabulary.      Английский словарь экологического инжиниринга.