Meaning of CROSS in English

CROSS

I. ˈkrȯs also ˈkräs noun

( -es )

Etymology: Middle English cros, crosse, from Old English cros, from Old Norse or Old Irish; Old Norse kross, from (assumed) Old Irish cross (whence Middle Irish), from Latin crux — more at ridge

1.

a. : a structure usually consisting of an upright with a transverse beam used especially by the ancient Romans as a means of execution

the slave who revolted was fastened to a cross

— see crucify , crux commissa , crux decussata , crux immissa

b. often capitalized : the cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified

the day when Jesus died on the Cross

2.

a. : crucifixion

the penalty of the cross

specifically : the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ regarded as the culmination of his mission of redemption

by thy Cross and Passion … Good Lord, deliver us — Litany in Book of Com. Prayer

b. : the gospel of redemption through the death of Jesus Christ

the doctrine of the cross , as the one great rule and hope of the world — G.A.Poole

3. : an affliction or trial regarded as a test of Christian steadfastness, patience, or virtue — often used in the phrase bear one's cross, take one's cross, or take up one's cross with allusion to such biblical passages as Mt 10: 38, 16: 24, 27: 32; broadly : any affliction, trial, or trouble

it was Ian's cross to be a social coward — Hamilton Basso

4. : sign of the cross

5.

a. : a device or emblem composed essentially of an upright bar traversed by or joined at the top to a horizontal one but found in many varying types and used by people of various cultures as a symbol having any of various meanings, or as an amulet, and adopted by Christians because of its resemblance to the instrument of Jesus' crucifixion as a symbol of the culmination of his mission of redemption through his death or as a symbol of the Christian faith, a Christian people, or Christendom, and also widely used without specific religious symbolism in countries having a predominantly Christian background — see calvary cross , celtic cross , cross-crosslet , cross of lorraine , greek cross , latin cross , maltese cross , papal cross , patriarchal cross , saint andrew's cross , tau cross

b. : something that this device or emblem symbolizes (as Christianity or Christendom)

to fight for the cross

6.

a. : a cross-shaped badge, ornament, or article of ecclesiastical furniture used as a religious emblem

b. : a staff surmounted by a cross or crucifix borne in religious processions ; specifically : cross-staff 1

7.

a. : a monument or other structure in the form of a cross or surmounted by a cross

a boundary cross

a cross over a grave

especially : a cross set up in the center or market place of a town

b. now Scotland : market

8. : a figure or mark formed by two intersecting lines or bars usually of equal or approximately equal length and crossing at or about their midpoints (as + or ×)

written in warm terms with plenty of crosses indicating kisses — L.A.Norris

the morning star, represented by a cross — L.H.Appleton

a single cross placed opposite one of the party names and counted as a vote — F.A.Ogg & P.O.Ray

specifically : such a cross (as in ink or pencil) used as a signature — see christcross

9.

a. : a badge or emblem of an order of chivalry or a decoration of honor having the form of a cross or of a number of rays, often more or less than four, radiating from a common center — compare cross of fourteen points

b. : one entitled to wear such a badge or emblem

he is a Victoria Cross

10. archaic

a. : a cross-shaped impression on a coin

b. : a coin having such an impression

11. heraldry : an ordinary having the form of a pale and a fess combined intersecting in the center of the field

12. : a pipe fitting with four branches the axes of which usually form right angles

13. : a piece of fur made of sections or of whole skins sewed in the form of a cross

14. : any device or emblem of an extensive category that includes not only the cross (sense 5a) in all of its varieties but also various other devices of which a cross forms a part (as the swastika) or which are analogous to the cross

as early as 317 B.C., the coins of Sicily bear the three-armed cross as a symbol — E.S.Holden

— see ankh ; compare triskelion

15. obsolete : a transverse part of an object (as the cross guard of a sword or dagger, the stock of an anchor, or the cross stroke on a letter t )

16. obsolete : a position wherein one thing rests over another in the form of a cross — used with in or on

17. archaic : the intersection of two ways or lines : crossing

18. : an accidental contact between two electrical conductors

19. : thwarting, vexation , annoyance

a cross in love

20.

a. : an act of crossing (as between breeds, races, or kinds of individuals)

his first cross of radish and cabbage was unsuccessful

b. : a crossbred individual or kind : a product of crossing

the blue-gray cross resulting from breeding a Galloway cow to a white Shorthorn bull exhibits outstanding beef conformation

c. : one that combines characteristics of two different types or individuals

a cross between a hiss and a spit — H.J.Laski

21.

a. : something that is not honest or fair (as a contest) : something fraudulent or predeterminedly dishonest

I never fought a cross or struck a foul blow in my life — G.B.Shaw

b. : dishonest or illegal practices — used especially in the phrase on the cross

he earned money mostly on the cross

— see double cross

22. : a motion that intersects or goes across: as

a. : a movement from one part of the stage of a theater to another or from one side to the other

b. : a hook crossed over the opponent's lead in boxing — usually used with right or left

I caught him off guard with … a lucky right cross — G.A.Hamid

Synonyms: see trial

- in cross

- per cross

[s]cross.jpg[/s] [

cross 5a: 1 Latin, 2 Calvary, 3 patriarchal, 4 papal, 5 Lorraine, 6 Greek, 7 Celtic, 8 Maltese, 9 Saint Andrew's, 10 tau, 11 pommée, 12 botonée, 13 fleury, 14 avellan, 15 moline, 16 formée, 17 fourchée, 18 crosslet, 19 quadrate, 20 potent

]

II. verb

( crossed also crost ; crossed also crost ; crossing ; crosses )

Etymology: Middle English crossen, from cros, n.

transitive verb

1.

a. : to lie or be situated across

the bandoliers crossed his chest

the point where the two braces cross each other

b. : intersect

the two lines cross each other at right angles

specifically : to intersect (one another) as pairs so that each member of one pair meets each member of the other — used in mathematics of two pairs of lines in space

2. : to fasten (a sail or yard) across a mast

the sails were crossed and the voyage begun

3.

a. : to make the sign of the cross upon or over : bless

pilgrims crossed by a bishop

the communicants crossed themselves devoutly and knelt in prayer

b. : to place a coin in (the hand of a gypsy fortune-teller) when paying for a consultation

c. : to place (one's fingers) in a crossed position (as the middle finger over the index finger) as a gesture intended to bring good luck, to free one from responsibility while telling a lie, or to indicate private reservations when making a statement

d. : to draw a cross over (one's heart) with one's finger as a gesture intended to indicate the absolute truthfulness of a statement

4.

a. : to cancel by or as if by marking a cross on or drawing a line through : strike out : eradicate — usually used with off or out

cross out a bad debt

cross names off a list

cross out portions of a text

b. obsolete : to cut off : debar

5.

a. : to lay or place crosswise usually with one above and almost parallel to the other

cross the arms

— often used with over

he sat down and crossed one leg over the other

b. : to arrange in a crisscross pattern

to start a fire first cross some dry twigs

c. : to place one's leg over (as a horse or saddle) : sit astride : ride

the best pony that was ever crossed

6.

a.

(1) : to run counter to : oppose

he was ugly if crossed

: thwart

crossed in love

(2) : to deny the validity of : contradict

cross a person's statement

b.

(1) obsolete : to encounter hostilely : engage in combat with

(2) : to confront in a troublesome or bothersome manner : obstruct

the ship was crossed by contrary winds

c.

(1) : to spoil completely : disrupt — used with up

his not appearing crossed up the whole program

(2) : to deceive, betray, or turn against — used with up

cross someone up on a deal

7.

a. : to extend from one edge or corner of to the other : traverse

a highway crossing the entire state

a forest that crosses the length of a valley

b. : to reach or attain

only two runners crossed the finish line

the number of accidents crossed the 1000 mark in July

c.

(1) : to go from one side of to the opposing side

cross a street

cross a mine field

(2) : to pass over on (as an elevated structure) from one side to the other

cross a bridge

cross a trestle

8.

a. : to draw a line across or on (as something already drawn)

cross one's t's

cross line A at right angles with a second line B

b. : to mark or figure with or as if with lines : streak

a mineral crossed with irregular yellow lines

c. Britain : to draw two parallel lines across the face of (a check) often with & Co written between them in order to indicate that payment is to be made only through a bank

if a check is sent it should be crossed and made nonnegotiable — Australian Home Beautiful

or to write or print between two parallel lines drawn across the face of (a check) the name of the particular bank through which payment is to be made

checks … should be made payable to “The Times Publishing Co., Ltd.,” and crossed “Barclays Bank Ltd.” — Times Literary Supplement

9. : to cause (an animal or plant) to interbreed with another animal or plant of a different race or kind : hybridize , cross-pollinate

improvements were made by crossing mongrel sows with imported boars — E.D.Ross

10. : to occur to

an idea crossed me once that he might be an actor — G.B.Shaw

— often used with mind

misgivings of every sort crossed my mind

11.

a. : to come upon : meet

cross an acquaintance on the street

b. : to meet and pass on the way because of setting out or being sent out at approximately the same time

our letters must have crossed each other

12.

a. : cross-plow

b.

(1) : to intersect the path in front of (the bows) of another ship

a destroyer crossed the bows of the transport

(2) : to ride across the course of (another horse) in horse racing or polo

13.

a. : to carry, transport, or take across

a man bold enough to take his chances could cross livestock to the Texas side of the river — F.B.Gipson

b. : to transfer (as from one side to another) — usually used with under or over

to tie the knot cross the right hand under the left

14. : to name as trump (a suit) of a different color from the card turned in the game of euchre

intransitive verb

1.

a. obsolete : to run counter : be at odds — used with upon or with

b. : to ride across the course of another horse

the jockey claimed there was too much bumping and crossing in the race

2. : to move, pass, or extend across something

a path that crosses through the garden

a throw that crossed from left field to first base

the ship crossed over the equator

specifically : to pass from one side of the theater stage to another — used with over

3. : to lie or be athwart each other

the two highways cross nearby

4. : to meet in passing especially from opposite directions

our letters crossed in the mail

5. : to interbreed (as of two races) : hybridize ; specifically of a gene : to pass from one homologous chromosome to another — used with over ; see crossing-over

- cross a person's palm

- cross swords

- cross the floor

- cross the line

- cross the T

III. adjective

( -er/-est )

Etymology: cross (I)

1.

a. : lying across or athwart

the crazy tangle of cross wires — H.J.Muller

: extending from one side to the other

cross members should be all steel or metal or equivalent strength — Bookmobile Specifications

b. : moving across : traversing from one side to the other

cross ventilation

cross traffic

2. archaic : not accordant with what is wished or expected : thwarting, perverse , unfavorable

bowed down by a cross fortune

cross weather

3. : running counter : opposing , opposite

a cross wind

tugging on some issues in cross directions — New York Times

ideas cross to those of most other people

specifically : mutually opposed

working at cross purposes

4. : involving mutual interchange : reciprocal

a system of cross payments was worked out by the two governments

5.

a. archaic : contentious , fractious , perverse , contrarious

b. : marked by bad temper and irritable disposition : easily vexed : snappish , grumpy , peevish

a woman who feels that her future is uncertain … can be … cross with her husband and children — Harrison Smith

a cross answer

6. : extending over, covering, or treating several categories, groups, conditions, or classes — used chiefly in adjective-noun compounds

a cross -cultural perspective

cross sample records of … 1800 children — American Child

7. : crossbred , hybrid ; specifically : heterozygous for a recessive character

Synonyms: see irascible

IV. preposition

Etymology: by shortening

: across

the daily flight of an eagle back and forth cross the river to its nest — American Guide Series: Texas

V. adverb

Etymology: in sense 1, short for across; in other senses, partly from cross (I) , partly, from cross (III)

1. archaic : from side to side : across , athwart

2. archaic : contrariwise , unfavorably

3. : not parallel : crosswise , crisscross — used chiefly with verbs

to cross -wind wire on a spool

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.