Meaning of CHINA 1 in English
- CHINA 1
also called Chicom 1, or PRC 1 first Earth satellite orbited by the People's Republic of China. It was launched on April 24, 1970, from the rocket facility at Shuang Cheng Tsu, and it made China the fifth nation to place a satellite into Earth orbit. Little is known about China 1. It weighed approximately 173 kg (381 pounds) and carried a radio transmitter that broadcast a patriotic anthem. Additional reading Geography General works Overviews of China's physical and human geography may be found in Keith Buchanan, The Transformation of the Chinese Earth (1970); Ping-chia Kuo, China, 3rd ed. (1970); T.R. Tregear, China: A Geographical Survey (1980); Albert Kolb, East Asia: China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam: Geography of a Cultural Region (1971, reprinted 1977; originally published in German, 1963); Brian Hook (ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of China (1982); Robert L. Worden, Andrea Matles Savada, and Ronald E. Dolan (eds.), China, a Country Study, 4th ed. (1988); and Information China, 3 vol. (1989), an encyclopaedic work prepared under the auspices of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and ed. by C.V. James. Land and people Physical geography is surveyed in The Physical Geography of China, 2 vol., trans. from Russian (1969), prepared by the Institute of Geography, U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences; Songqiao Zhao, Physical Geography of China (1986); and Shih-hsun Ch'en, The Climate of China (1962). Studies of population include June Teufel Dreyer, China's Forty Millions (1976), an examination of China's minorities and their integration into society since 1949; C.K. Leung and Norton Ginsburg (eds.), China: Urbanization and National Development (1980); Liu Zheng et al., China's Population: Problems and Prospects (1981), containing surveys and case studies; Judith Banister, China's Changing Population (1987), an analysis of modern demographic trends; and New China's Population (1988), studies by Chinese demographers of three censuses. Atlases include Chiao-min Hsieh, Atlas of China, ed. by Christopher L. Salter (1973); P.J.M. Geelan and D.C. Twitchett (eds.), The Times Atlas of China (1974); Caroline Blunden and Mark Elvin, Cultural Atlas of China (1983); The Population Atlas of China (1987), on the 1982 census, prepared by the Population Census Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences; and Nathan Sivin (ed.), The Contemporary Atlas of China (1988), including maps, illustrations, essays, and a chronology. Economy Analyses of Chinese economic development include Audrey Donnithorne, China's Economic System (1967); Alexander Eckstein, China's Economic Revolution (1977); and World Bank, China, 9 vol. (1982). Also see Kenneth Ruddle and Wu Chuanjun (eds.), Land Resources of the People's Republic of China (1983); Stanley D. Richardson, Forestry in Communist China (1966); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forestry in China (1982); Christopher Howe, China's Economy (1978); A. Doak Barnett, China's Economy in Global Perspective (1981); China Quarterly, no. 100 (December 1984), a special issue on economic reform; United States Congress, Joint Economic Committee, An Economic Profile of Mainland China (1968), China: A Reassessment of the Economy (1975), Chinese Economy Post-Mao (1978), China Under the Four Modernizations (1982), and Chinese Economy in the Eighties (1985), collections of studies by China specialists; Edward L. Wheelwright and Bruce McFarlane, The Chinese Road to Socialism: Economics of the Cultural Revolution (1970); Theodore Shabad, China's Changing Map: National and Regional Development, 1949-71, 2nd ed. (1972); Nicholas R. Lardy and Kenneth Lieberthal (eds.), Ch'en Yun's Strategy for China's Development: A Non-Maoist Alternative (1983); Dorothy J. Solinger, Chinese Business Under Socialism (1984), an analysis of controversies over the organization and role of commerce in China's development to 1980; Nicholas R. Lardy, Economic Growth and Distribution in China (1978); and Samuel P.S. Ho and Ralph W. Huenemann, China's Open Door Policy: The Quest for Foreign Technology and Capital: A Study of China's Special Trade (1984). Lilian Craig Harris and Robert L. Worden (eds.), China and the Third World (1986), is a collection of essays on China's role in the redistribution of the resources of the industrialized world. Reference works in English published by or with the cooperation of the Chinese government include Almanac of China's Economy (annual) by the Economic Research Centre; and Statistical Yearbook of China (annual) by the State Statistical Bureau. Information on railway, air, and highway communication may be found in general works on the Chinese economy cited in the previous paragraph. For the role of transportation in the history of Western influence on China and on regional economics, see Shun-hsin Chou, "Railway Development and Economic Growth in Manchuria," China Quarterly, no. 45, pp. 57-84 (1971). Articles on transportation appear intermittently in Beijing Review (weekly). Administration, social conditions, and cultural life Two general surveys are John K. Fairbank, The United States and China, 4th enlarged ed. (1983); and C.T. Hu et al., China: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture (1960), with a topical bibliography. See also Fredric M. Kaplan and Julian M. Sobin, Encyclopaedia of China Today, 3rd rev. ed. (1982); William Hinton, Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village (1966), an eyewitness account of 1948 revolutionary activity in a village in Shansi; Marc Blecher, China, Politics, Economics, and Society (1986), a survey of China since 1949; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization in Communist China, 2nd enlarged ed. (1968), a sociological analysis of Communist ideology and institutions on the eve of the Cultural Revolution; Ping-ti Ho and Tang Tsou (eds.), China's Heritage and the Communist Political System in China in Crisis, vol. 1 (1968), a critical analysis of the Chinese political system during the early phase of the Cultural Revolution; John Wilson Lewis (ed.), Party Leadership and Revolutionary Power in China (1970), analyses of the early impact of the Cultural Revolution on the Chinese Communist leadership and its policies; Richard H. Solomon, Mao's Revolution and the Chinese Political Culture (1971), an examination of Mao's thought as applied to the problems of political socialization of the masses; John M.H. Lindbeck (ed.), China: Management of a Revolutionary Society (1971), studies of cultural, ideological, and institutional changes; Harry Harding, Organizing China: The Problem of Bureaucracy, 1949-1976 (1981); James R. Townsend, Politics in China, 2nd ed. (1980), a summary of works on all aspects of political history; Benedict Stavis, China's Political Reforms (1988), an analysis of some of the reforms of the 1980s; Harvey W. Nelsen, The Chinese Military System, 2nd rev. ed. (1981), an examination of decision making in the People's Liberation Army; Ellis Joff, The Chinese Army After Mao (1987), an assessment of the PLA's modernization; Pi-chao Chen, Population and Health Policy in the People's Republic of China (1976); Daniel L. Overmyer, Religions of China: The World as a Living System (1986), an introduction to religion in everyday life; and Kenneth Lieberthal and Michel Oksenberg, Policy Making in China (1988), an analysis of the influence of political institutions on policy making.The following periodicals give current information on social, political, cultural, and economic affairs: The China Quarterly; Far Eastern Economic Review (weekly); The China Business Review (bimonthly); China Today (monthly); China Pictorial (monthly); and China News Analysis (biweekly). Cheng-Siang Chen Kenneth G. Lieberthal Karl Patterson Schmidt E.I.U Kenneth J. DeWoskin History General works Denis Twitchett and John K. Fairbank (eds.), The Cambridge History of China (1978- ), will be the standard multivolume reference work for all aspects of Chinese history when it is completed. The following are comprehensive works: John K. Fairbank, China: A New History (1992), covering the span from paleolithic cultures to the events in Tiananmen Square in 1989, with an excellent bibliography; Wolfram Eberhard, A History of China, 4th ed. (1977, reissued 1987; originally published in German, 1948); John K. Fairbank and Edwin O. Reischauer, China: Tradition and Transformation, rev. ed. (1989); Otto Franke, Geschichte des chinesischen Reiches, 2nd ed., 5 vol. (1948-65); Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization (1982; originally published in French, 1972), a detailed survey of China's intellectual, social, and economic history from the neolithic cultures up to the Cultural Revolution of 1966; Charles O. Hucker, China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture (1975), to 1850; and John Meskill (ed.), An Introduction to Chinese Civilization (1973), which includes a survey of Chinese history and ten essays on such aspects of Chinese civilization as anthropology, economy, geography, and religion, among others. Prehistory Scholarly analyses include Chi Li, The Beginnings of Chinese Civilization (1957, reprinted 1968); Kwang-chih Chang, The Archaeology of Ancient China, 4th ed., rev. and enlarged (1986), a pioneering, comprehensive synthesis based on the coverage of excavations reported to the end of 1985; David N. Keightley (ed.), The Origins of Chinese Civilization (1983), a collection of articles about environment and agriculture, cultures and peoples, and the genesis of the state; Jessica Rawson, Ancient China: Art and Archeology (1980), a study of the artistic significance of Neolithic and Bronze Age artifacts; William Watson, Cultural Frontiers in Ancient East Asia (1971), an illustrated analysis of cultural interaction; and Rukang Wu and John W. Olsen (eds.), Palaeoanthropology and Palaeolithic Archaeology in the People's Republic of China (1985), an account of Chinese research on early man. The first historical dynasty: the Shang In addition to the works of Chang, Watson, and Rawson mentioned in the previous paragraph, the following works are also informative: Kwang-chih Chang, Early Chinese Civilization: Anthropological Perspectives (1976), and Shang Civilization (1980), on Shang archaeology and culture; Tsung-tung Chang, Der Kult der Shang-Dynastie im Spiegel der Orakelinschriften (1970); David N. Keightley, Sources of Shang History: The Oracle-Bone Inscriptions of Bronze Age China (1978, reprinted 1985); Wen Fong (ed.), The Great Bronze Age of China (1980), an analytic catalog of an exhibition from the People's Republic of China; and Paul Wheatley, The Pivot of the Four Quarters (1971), a comparative study of the origins of urban society. David N. Keightley The Chou and Ch'in dynasties This transitional period is examined in Chi Li, The Formation of the Chinese People (1928, reprinted 1967), useful for information on the ethnic history of ancient China; Herlee Glessner Creel, The Birth of China (1937, reprinted 1954), still regarded as one of the standard references, and The Origins of Statecraft in China, vol. 1 (1970), the first Western book to include extensive materials from bronze inscriptions-especially significant on the activities of non-Chou peoples; Cho-yun Hsu, Ancient China in Transition (1965), a standard work on social structure and social mobility in the Chou period; Derk Bodde, China's First Unifier (1938, reprinted 1967), and Statesman, Patriot, and General in Ancient China (1940, reprinted 1967), works covering the effort of the first emperors and their courts to accomplish unification; Arthur Cotterell, The First Emperor of China (1981), a popular history that includes a description and historical analysis of 7,000 terra-cotta life-size figures buried in 210 BC; Yu-ning Li, The First Emperor of China (1975), Yu-lan Fung, A History of Chinese Philosophy, 2nd ed., 2 vol., trans. from the Chinese (1952-53, reprinted 1983), coverage of the thought of different schools in ancient China; and Xueqin Li, Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilizations (1986), an account of archaeological findings of the period from the 8th to the 3rd century BC. Cho-yun Hsu The Han dynasty Translations of historical source material can be found in douard Chavannes (ed. and trans.), Les Mmoires historiques de Se-ma Ts'ien, new ed. 6 vol. (1967-69); Homer H. Dubs (ed. and trans.), The History of the Former Han Dynasty, 3 vol. (1938-55); Esson M. Gale (ed. and trans.), Discourses on Salt and Iron (1931, reprinted 1973); Burton Watson (ed. and trans.), Records of the Grand Historian of China, 2 vol. (1961); Hsien-yi Yang and Gladys Yang (trans.), Selections from Records of the Historian (1979); and A.F.P. Hulsew, Remnants of Ch'in Law (1985). Works on specific topics of Han history include Hans Bielenstein, The Restoration of the Han Dynasty, 4 vol. (1953-79); Michael Loewe, Records of Han Administration, 2 vol. (1967), Everyday Life in Early Imperial China During the Han Period 202 B.C.-A.D. 220 (1968, reissued 1973), and Crisis and Conflict in Han China 104 B.C. to A.D. 9 (1974); T'ung-tsu Ch'u, Han Social Structure (1972); A.F.P. Hulsew, Remnants of Han Law (1955); Cho-yun Hsu, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D. 220 (1980); and Ying-shih Yu, Trade and Expansion in Han China (1967). Zhongsbu Wang, Han Civilization (1982), is a survey of archaeological investigations of the Han dynasty. Jack L. Dull Period of division The most extensive modern account of the period of division is that found in the general history by Franke cited above, vol. 2, with copious notes in vol. 3; this is a traditional chronological history, which pays little attention to nonpolitical matters and absolutely none to modern historical writing on the period in Chinese and Japanese. Other works on this important period include Wolfram Eberhard, Das Toba-Reich Nordchinas: eine soziologische Untersuchung (1949), a Western-language study on the T'o-pa Wei-controversial and interesting but highly technical; W.J.F. Jenner, Memories of Loyang (1981), a political history of the Wei dynasty during the Pei-ch'ao (Northern Dynasties) period; tienne Balazs, "Les Courants intellectuels en Chine au IIIe sicle de notre re," tudes Asiatiques, vol. 2 (1948), the best Western-language study on the rise of "Neo-Taoism" and other schools of thought after the breakdown of the Han Empire; Henri Maspero, Taoism and Chinese Religion (1983; originally published in French, 1950), a collection of essays dealing mainly with T'ang dynasty Taoism, still the most important general survey of the Taoist religion of this period, written mainly in the 1930s and '40s by a great authority for the general public; Holmes Welch, Taoism: The Parting of the Way, rev. ed. (1965), a general history of the Taoist movement with about one-third of the book devoted to the development of Taoist religion in the Six Dynasties period; Michel Strickmann, Le Taosme du Mao Chan: chronique d'une rvlation (1981), a scholarly account of one of the main schools of medieval Taoism; Arthur F. Wright, Buddhism in Chinese History (1959, reprinted 1971), a popular but authoritative survey of Chinese Buddhism as a whole, two chapters of which are devoted to the Six Dynasties period; Kenneth K.S. Chen, Buddhism in China (1964, reprinted 1972), an extensive history of Chinese Buddhism by an eminent specialist; Erik Zrcher, The Buddhist Conquest of China, 2 vol. (1959, reprinted 1972), a detailed, rather technical study of the formation of gentry Buddhism; and Jacques Gernet, Les Aspects conomiques du bouddhisme dans la socit chinoise du Ve au Xe sicle (1956), an indispensable but rather technical work on the economic functions of the Buddhist monasteries from the 5th to the 10th century. Erik Zrcher Denis C. Twitchett Sui and T'ang periods By far the best general history of the periods is in vol. 3 of The Cambridge History of China (1979). The most important work on the Sui period is Arthur F. Wright, The Sui Dynasty (1978). See also his two studies "The Formation of Sui Ideology 581-604," in John K. Fairbank (ed.), Chinese Thought and Institutions (1957), and "Sui Yang-ti: Personality and Stereotype," in Arthur F. Wright (ed.), The Confucian Persuasion (1960). Woodbridge Bingham, The Founding of the T'ang Dynasty: The Fall of Sui and Rise of T'ang (1941, reprinted 1970), gives a clear account of the period from 607 to 624. Two books by C.P. Fitzgerald, The Son of Heaven: A Biography of Li Shih-Min, Founder of the T'ang Dynasty (1933, reprinted 1971), and The Empress Wu, 2nd ed. (1968), give a traditional account of the political history of the early T'ang, without advantage of later scholarship. More modern analyses of the early T'ang are presented in Howard J. Wechsler, Mirror to the Son of Heaven: Wei Cheng at the Court of T'ang T'ai-tsung (1974), and Offerings of Jade and Silk: Ritual and Symbol in the Legitimation of the T'ang Dynasty (1985). R.W.L. Guisso, Wu Tse-t'ien and the Politics of Legitimation in T'ang China (1978), is a comprehensive study of Empress Wu's reign. On the Empress' use of Buddhist ideology, see A. Forte, Political Propaganda and Ideology in China at the End of the Seventh Century (1976). Edwin G. Pulleyblank, The Background to the Rebellion of An Lu-shan (1955, reprinted 1982), gives a full account of every aspect of the reign of Hsan-tsung. Also interesting on the politics of the same period is P.A. Herbert, Under the Brilliant Emperor: Imperial Authority in T'ang China as Seen in the Writings of ChangChiu-ling (1978). There is no modern full-scale study of the An Lu-shan rebellion itself, but the two principal sources exist in well-annotated translations by Howard S. Levy (ed. and trans.), Biography of An Lu-shan (1960); and by Robert Des Rotours (trans.), Histoire de Ngan Lou-chan (1962). There is no satisfactory book-length account of the following period. The rebellions of the 780s are described briefly in Denis Twitchett, "Lu Chih (754-805)," in Arthur F. Wright and Denis Twitchett (eds.), Confucian Personalities (1962). The mysterious reign of Shun-tsung has not been subjected to a modern analytic study, but the principal source is translated in Bernard S. Solomon (ed. and trans.), The Veritable Record Of The T'ang Emperor Shun-tsung (1955). There is some account of the subsequent reigns in Arthur Waley, The Life and Times of Po Ch-i, 772-846 A.D. (1949), but the historical analysis is somewhat outdated. For the period after 847 even the Chinese primary documentation becomes very thin. The only events that have attracted attention of Western scholars are the rebellions; on these see Robert Des Rotours, "La Rvolte de P'ang Hiun," T'oung Pao, 56:229-240 (1970); and Howard S. Levy (ed. and trans.), Biography of Huang Ch'ao, 2nd rev. ed. (1961). On the Huang Ch'ao rebellion and the subsequent disorders the best account is Gungwu Wang, The Structure of Power in North China During the Five Dynasties (1963, reissued 1967). A number of important studies on T'ang political history, taking account of modern Japanese and Chinese scholarship, are included in Arthur F. Wright and Denis Twitchett (eds.), Perspectives on the T'ang (1973). John Curtis Perry and Bardwell L. Smith (eds.), Essays on T'ang Society: The Interplay of Social, Political, and Economic Forces (1976), is also a significant collection. On T'ang institutions in general there is a perceptive though outdated (the book was actually completed in 1951) account in Henri Maspero and tienne Balazs, Histoire et institutions de la Chine ancienne, pp. 160-262 (1967). The traditional sources on the administrative system are translated by Robert Des Rotours, Trait des fonctionnaires, et Trait de l'arme, 2 vol., 2nd rev. ed. (1974), and on the examination system in his Trait des examens, 2nd rev. ed. (1976). On finances and general economic problems, see Denis Twitchett, Financial Administration Under the T'ang Dynasty, 2nd ed. (1970), which contains a full bibliography. On finance under the Sui, see tienne Balazs, tudes sur la socit et l'conomie de la Chine mdivale, 2 vol. (1953-54). For translations of the main documents on T'ang law, see Karl Lnger, Quellen zur Rechtsgeschichte der T'ang-Zeit (1946); and Wallace Johnson (trans.), The T'ang Code, vol. 1 (1979). On general social history, see Denis Twitchett, Land Tenure and the Social Order in T'ang and Sung China (1962), "The T'ang Market System," Asia Major, 12:202-248 (1966), "Merchant, Trade and Government in Late T'ang," Asia Major, 14:63-95 (1968), and Birth of the Chinese Meritocracy: Bureaucrats and Examinations in T'ang China (1976); also see the relevant sections of tienne Balazs, Chinese Civilization and Bureaucracy, trans. from the French (1964, reprinted 1972). More information is to be found in Robert M. Hartwell, "Demographic, Political, and Social Transformations of China, 750-1550," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, 42:365-442 (December 1982); and in the eyewitness account by a contemporary Japanese monk in Edwin O. Reischauer (trans.), Ennin's Diary (1955), with a companion volume, Ennin's Travels in T'ang China (1955). See also, on the very important evidence from Tun-huang, Lionel Giles, Six Centuries of Tunhuang (1944); and Denis Twitchett, "Chinese Social History from the Seventh to the Tenth Centuries: The Tunhuang Documents and Their Implications," Past and Present, 35:28-53 (1966). The following are extremely important for the light they throw on the cosmopolitan nature of T'ang society: Edward H. Schafer, The Vermilion Bird: T'ang Images of the South (1967), The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: A Study of T'ang Exotics (1963, reprinted 1985), and Shore of Pearls (1970), dealing with the early history of Hai-nan Island. The best general account of Chinese relations with its northern neighbours in the steppes is Rene Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes (1970; originally published in French, 1939; 4th French ed., 1960). On Chinese overseas trade and relations with Southeast Asia, see Gungwu Wang, The Nanhai Trade: A Study of the Early History of Chinese Trade in the South China Sea (1958). Denis C. Twitchett Five Dynasties, Ten Kingdoms, and Sung periods Edward H. Schafer, The Empire of Min (1954), has the best sinological summary on this kingdom in the South. On conquest dynasties in the North, see Hok-lam Chan, The Historiography of the Chin Dynasty: Three Studies (1970), and Legitimation in Imperial China: Discussions Under the Jurchen-Chin Dynasty, 1115-1234 (l984); and Jing-shen Tao, The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China: A Study of Sinicization (1976). On the Sung period, listings of works in Western languages are available in Yves Hervouet, Bibliographie des travaux en langues occidentales sur les Song parus de 1946 1965 (1969). Sequels to it appear in various volumes of Sung Studies Newsletter (ceased publication in 1978), and its successor, the Bulletin of Sung and Yan Studies (annual). C.P. Fitzgerald, "The Chinese Middle Ages in Communist Historiography," in Albert Feuerwerker (ed.), History in Communist China (1968), provides information on some earlier work done by historians in mainland China. On the significance of the Sung and varying interpretations, see James T.C. Liu and Peter J. Golas (eds.), Change in Sung China: Innovation or Renovation? (1969). Further general information is available in the following: Edward A. Kracke, Jr., Civil Service in Early Sung China, 960-1067 (1953), a monumental work; James T.C. Liu, Ou-yang Hsiu, an Eleventh-Century Neo-Confucianist, trans. from the Chinese (1967), and Reform in Sung China: Wang An-shih (1021-1086) and His New Policies (1959), both works attempting to relate general trends through historical figures; and Brian E. McKnight, Village and Bureaucracy in Southern Sung China (1971), an account coming down to the later period as well as the local scene. Jacques Gernet, Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276 (1962; originally published in French, 1959), provides vivid descriptions. See also Patricia Buckley Ebrey (ed. and trans.), Family and Property in Sung China: Yan Ts'ai's Precepts for Social Life (1984), an excellent picture of family relations as studied in the 12th-century work by Yan Ts'ai; Thomas H.S. Lee, Government Education and Examinations in Sung China (1985), a description of education and its relationship to the civil service; and Brian E. McKnight (trans.), The Washing Away of Wrongs: Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth-Century China (1985), a translation of an early work on the topic. James T.C. Liu Brian E. McKnight The Yan dynasty The standard Chinese source is the official dynastic history, Yan shih, completed in 1370. Supplementing this, for the history of Genghis Khan and gdei Khan, is the Chinese rendition of the Mongolian historical literary narrative, Yan ch'ao pi shih. It is known in the West through several translations, such as The Secret History of the Mongols, trans. and ed. by Francis Woodman Cleaves (1982); or The Secret History of the Mongols, adapted by Paul Kahn (1984). A partial listing of Western works on Yan history is available in Henry G. Schwarz, Bibliotheca Mongolica: Works in English, French, and German (1978). On the Mongol operations against China, see the early work of H. Desmond Martin, The Rise of Chingis Khan and His Conquest of North China (1950, reissued 1971), now partially superseded by Igor de Rachewiltz, "Personnel and Personalities in North China in the Early Mongol Period," Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 9:88-144 (1966), a study of the Mongol conquest. On the political history of the later Yan, see John W. Dardess, Conquerors and Confucians: Aspects of Political Change in Late Yan China (1973). For works on governmental institutions and legal and military systems, see Paul Ratchnevsky (ed.), Un Code des Yuan, 2 vol. (1937-72); Franz Schurman (ed. and trans.), Economic Structure of the Yan Dynasty (1956, reissued 1967); Hok-lam Chan, "Liu Ping-chung (1216-74): A Buddhist-Taoist Statesman at the Court of Khubilai Khan," T'oung Pao, 53:98-146 (1967); Herbert Franke, From Tribal Chieftain to Universal Emperor and God: The Legitimation of the Yan Dynasty (1978); Ch'i-ch'ing Hsiao, The Military Establishment of the Yan Dynasty (1978); Paul Heng-chao Ch'en, Chinese Legal Tradition Under the Mongols: The Code of 1291 as Reconstructed (1979); and John D. Langlois, Jr. (ed.), China Under Mongol Rule (1981). For religious and intellectual life of the period, see Arthur Waley (trans.), The Travels of an Alchemist (1931, reprinted 1963), on Ch'ang-ch'un; Frederick W. Mote, "Confucian Eremitism in the Yan period," in Arthur F. Wright, The Confucian Persuasion (1960); Ch'en Yuan, Western and Central Asians in China Under the Mongols (1966), an annotated translation of an authoritative Chinese work; Wm. Theodore De Bary, "The Rise of Neo-Confucian Orthodoxy in Yan China," in his Neo-Confucian Orthodoxy and the Learning of the Mind-and-Heart (1981); and Hok-lam Chan and Wm. Theodore De Bary (eds.), Yan Thought: Chinese Thought and Religion Under the Mongols (1982). For works on art and literature of the Yan dynasty, see Sherman E. Lee and Wai-kam Ho, Chinese Art Under the Mongols: The Yan Dynasty, 1279-1368 (1968); Wayne Schlepp, San-ch': Its Technique and Imagery (1970); Chung-wen Shih, The Golden Age of Chinese Drama: Yan Tsa-ch (1976); James Cahill, Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yan Dynasty, 1279-1368 (1976); Richard John Lynn, Kuan Yn-shih (1980), a biography of the poet; and J.I. Crump, Chinese Theater in the Days of Khublai Khan (1980), and Songs from Xanadu: Studies in Mongol-Dynasty Song-Poetry (San-ch'u) (1983). On Chinese contacts with Asia and the West, see E. Bretschneider, Mediaeval Research from Eastern Asiatic Sources: Fragments Towards the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th Century, 2 vol. (1888, reprinted 1967); Herbert Franke, "Sino-Western Contacts Under the Mongol Empire," Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 6:49-72 (1966); Leonard Olschki, Marco Polo's Asia: An Introduction to His "Description of the World" called "Il Milione" (1960; originally published in Italian, 1957); and Igor de Rachewiltz, Papal Envoys to the Great Khans (1971). Herbert Franke Hoklam Chan Ming dynasty The standard reference guide to traditional Chinese-language materials is Wolfgang Franke, An Introduction to the Sources of Ming History (1968). Essential information is contained in L. Carrington Goodrich and Chao-ying Fang (eds.), Dictionary of Ming Biography (1976). Reviews and articles regularly appear in the journal Ming Studies (semiannual). Albert Chan, The Glory and Fall of the Ming Dynasty (1982), is a book-length survey of the whole period, but it does not make use of recent critical scholarship. The early Ming years are described and analyzed in Edward L. Dreyer, Early Ming China: A Political History, 1355-1435 (1982); and Charles O. Hucker, The Ming Dynasty: Its Origins and Evolving Institutions (1978). Additional light is shed on early Ming life, thought, and institutions in Edward L. Farmer, Early Ming Government: The Evolution of Dual Capitals (1976); Frederick W. Mote, The Poet Kao Ch'i (1962); and John W. Dardess, Confucianism and Autocracy: Professional Elites in the Founding of the Ming Dynasty (1983). Early Ming overseas expeditions and foreign relations are dealt with in J.J.L. Duyvendak, China's Discovery of Africa (1949); and Yi-t'ung Wang, Official Relations Between China and Japan, 1368-1549 (1953). Specialized studies of mature Ming include Charles O. Hucker, The Traditional Chinese State in Ming, 1368-1644 (1961), The Censorial System of Ming China (1966), and Charles O. Hucker (ed.), Chinese Government in Ming Times: Seven Studies (1969); Ray Huang, Taxation and Governmental Finance in Sixteenth-Century Ming China (1974); Kwan-wai So, Japanese Piracy in Ming China During the 16th Century (1975); Ping-ti Ho, Studies on the Population of China, 1368-1953 (1959, reprinted 1967), and The Ladder of Success in Imperial China: Aspects of Social Mobility, 1368-1911 (1962, reprinted 1976); and Ayao Hoshi, The Ming Tribute Grain System, trans. from the Chinese by Mark Elvin (1969). Ray Huang, 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline (1981), is a wide-ranging critical discussion of Ming governance and the ruling class; a somewhat more approving view of Ming China of the same period is China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matthew Ricci, 1583-1610, trans. from the Latin by Louis J. Gallagher (1953). Modern studies of China's contacts with Europeans in Ming times notably include T'ien-tse Chang, Sino-Portuguese Trade from 1514 to 1644 (1934, reprinted 1973); Charles R. Boxer (ed. and trans.), South China in the Sixteenth Century (1953, reprinted 1967); and George H. Dunne, Generations of Giants: The Story of the Jesuits in China in the Last Decades of the Ming Dynasty (1962). The last Ming years and the struggles of post-Mingloyalists are dealt with in James B. Parsons, The Peasant Rebellions of the Late Ming Dynasty (1970); Lynn A. Struve, The Southern Ming, 1644-1662 (1984); and Jonathan D. Spence and John E. Wills, Jr. (eds.), From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century China (1979). Studies in Ming intellectual and religious history are found in Wm. Theodore De Bary et al., Self and Society in Ming Thought (1970), and The Unfolding of Neo-Confucianism (1975). Charles O. Hucker The Ch'ing period (The rise of the Ch'ing dynasty): Immanuel C.Y. Hsu, The Rise of Modern China, 3rd ed. (1983); Robert H.G. Lee, The Manchurian Frontier in Ch'ing History (1970); Silas H.L. Wu, Communication and Imperial Control in China: Evolution of the Palace Memorial System, 1693-1735 (1970); and Frederic Wakeman, Jr., The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of the Imperial Order in Seventeenth-Century China (1985). (Early foreign relations): Luciano Petech, China and Tibet in the Early 18th Century, 2nd rev. ed. (1972); Chusei Suzuki, "China's Relations with Inner Asia: The Hsiung-nu, Tibet," pp. 180-197 in John K. Fairbank (ed.), The Chinese World Order (1968); Earl H. Pritchard, Anglo-Chinese Relations During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (1929, reissued 1970), and The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750-1800 (1936, reissued 1970); Antonio S. Rosso, Apostolic Legations to China of the Eighteenth Century (1948); and Marc Mancall, Russia and China: Their Diplomatic Relations to 1728 (1971). (Mid-Ch'ing society and economy): Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (1955, reprinted 1974); T'ung-tsu Chu, Local Government in China Under the Ch'ing (1962, reissued 1969); Madeleine Zelin, The Magistrate's Tael: Rationalizing Fiscal Reform in Eighteenth-Century Ch'ing China (1984); and Yeh-chien Wang, Land Taxation in Imperial China, 1750-1911 (1973).(Intellectual and cultural aspects): L. Carrington Goodrich, The Literary Inquisition of Ch'ien-lung, 2nd ed. (1966); Joseph R. Levenson, Confucian China and Its Modern Fate, 3 vol. (1958-65, reissued in 1 vol., 1968), and "The Abortiveness of Empiricism in Early Ch'ing Thought," Far Eastern Quarterly, 13:155-165 (1954); Ch'i-ch'ao Liang, Intellectual Trends in the Ch'ing Period, trans. by Immanuel C.Y. Hsu (1959); and Evelyn Sakakida Rawski, Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China (1979). (Dynastic degeneration): Jean Chesneaux (comp.), Secret Societies in China in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1971; originally published in French, 1965); Kung-chuan Hsiao, Rural China: Imperial Control in the Nineteenth Century (1960, reprinted 1967); Gilbert Rozman (ed.), The Modernization of China (1981), an interdisciplinary study of China's modernization between the Opium Wars and 1980; Philip A. Kuhn, Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China: Militarization and Social Structure, 1794-1864 (1970, reprinted 1980); and Susan Naquin, Millenarian Rebellion in China: The Eight Trigrams Uprising of 1813 (1976). (Western challenges): Masataka Banno, China and the West, 1858-1861: The Origins of the Tsungli Yamen (1964); Hsin-pao Chang, Commissioner Lin and the Opium War (1964, reprinted 1970); W.C. Costin, Great Britain and China, 1833-1860 (1937, reprinted 1968); John K. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast, 2 vol. (1953, reissued in 1 vol., 1969); Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-42 (1951, reprinted 1979); Immanuel C.Y. Hsu, China's Entrance into the Family of Nations: The Diplomatic Phase, 1858-1880 (1960); and Peter Ward Fay, The Opium War, 1840-1842 (1975).(The Taipings): Vincent Y.C. Shih, The Taiping Ideology: Its Sources, Interpretations, and Influences (1967, reprinted 1972); Franz H. Michael and Chang Chung-li, The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents, 3 vol. (1966-71); and Albert Feuerwerker, Rebellion in Nineteenth-Century China (1975). (Nien Rebellion): Siang-tseh Chiang, The Nien Rebellion (1954, reprinted 1967); S.Y. Teng, The Nien Army and Their Guerrilla Warfare, 1851-1868 (1961, reprinted 1984); and Elizabeth J. Perry, Rebels and Revolutionaries in North China, 1845-1945 (1980). (Chinese response): Albert Feuerwerker, China's Early Industrialization: Sheng Hsan-huai (1844-1916) and Mandarin Enterprise (1958, reissued 1970); Yen-p'ing Hao, The Comprador in Nineteenth Century China: Bridge Between East and West (1970); Paul A. Cohen, Between Tradition and Modernity: Wang T'ao and Reform in Late Ch'ing China (1974); William T. Rowe, Hankow: Commerce and Society in a Chinese City, 1796-1889 (1984); Luke S.K. Kwong, A Mosaic of the Hundred Days: Personalities, Politics, and Ideas of 1898 (1984); and Kung-ch'uan Hsiao, A Modern China and a New World: K'ang Yu-wei, Reformer and Utopian, 1858-1927 (1975).(Boxer Rebellion): Paul A. Cohen, China and Christianity: The Missionary Movement and the Growth of Chinese Antiforeignism, 1860-1870 (1963); and Victor Purcell, The Boxer Uprising (1963, reprinted 1974).For a comprehensive survey of the development of state power, see John K. Fairbank, The Great Chinese Revolution, 1800-1985 (1986). (Revolutionary movements at the end of the Ch'ing): Michael Gasster, Chinese Intellectuals and the Revolution of 1911: The Birth of Modern Chinese Radicalism (1969); Robert A. Scalapino and George T. Yu, The Chinese Anarchist Movement (1961, reprinted 1980); Harold Z. Schiffrin, Sun Yat-sen and the Origins of the Chinese Revolution (1968); John H. Fincher, Chinese Democracy, the Self-Government Movement in Local, Provincial, and National Politics, 1905-1914 (1981); Mary B. Rankin, Early Chinese Revolutionaries: Radical Intellectuals in Shanghai and Chekiang, 1902-1911 (1971); Edward J.M. Rhoads, China's Republican Revolution: The Case of Kwangtung, 1895-1913 (1975); Joseph W. Esherick, Reform and Revolution in China: The 1911 Revolution in Hunan and Hubei (1976); and Edmund S.K. Fung, The Military Dimension of the Chinese Revolution: The New Army and Its Role in the Revolution of 1911 (1980). Chusei Suzuki Albert Feuerwerker Twentieth-century China (Republican China): An accomplished text on this period is James E. Sheridan, China in Disintegration: The Republican Era in Chinese History, 1912-1949 (1975); more detailed and politically centred is O. Edmund Clubb, 20th Century China, 3rd ed. (1978). There are two excellent collections of biographies of the leading figures of the period: Howard L. Boorman and Richard C. Howard (eds.), Biographical Dictionary of Republican China, 5 vol. (1967-79); and Donald W. Klein and Anne B. Clarke, Biographic Dictionary of Chinese Communism, 1921-65, 2 vol. (1971). For the revolution of 1911-12 and the early republican period, scholarly essays offering fresh interpretations are found in Mary C. Wright (ed.), China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900-1913 (1968). The immediate consequences of the revolution of 1911-12 and the search for an appropriate political form for China are analyzed in Edward Friedman, Backward Toward Revolution: The Chinese Revolutionary Party (1974, reprinted 1977); and Ernest P. Young, The Presidency of Yuan Shih-K'ai: Liberalism and Dictatorship in Early Republican China (1977). The dimensions of the ebullient intellectual and political movements in China in the late teens are still best presented in a classic work, Tse-tung Chow, The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China (1960, reissued 1967). For a more critical view of some of the leading participants, see Y-sheng Lin, The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Antitraditionalism in the May Fourth Era (1979).The period of warlordism has been comprehensively treated by Hsi-sheng Ch'i, Warlord Politics in China, 1916-1928 (1976). Among studies of particular warlord formations, especially notable are James E. Sheridan, Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Y-hsiang (1966); and Donald E. Sutton, Provincial Militarism and the Chinese Republic: The Yunnan Army, 1905-25 (1980). Economic conditions are discussed in R.H. Tawney's prophetic and still valuable study, Land and Labour in China (1932, reprinted 1966). Essays in Dwight H. Perkins (ed.), China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective (1975), are relevant. A penetrating analysis of a critical sector of China's rural social order is Philip C.C. Huang, The Peasant Economy and Social Change in North China (1985). On the Nationalist revolution, see C. Martin Wilbur and Julie Lien-ying How (eds.), Documents on Communism, Nationalism, and Soviet Advisers in China, 1918-1927 (1956, reissued with corrections, 1972). The struggles that displaced warlords from centre stage are set forth in C. Martin Wilbur, The Nationalist Revolution in China, 1923-1928 (1984). Richard W. Rigby, The May 30 Movement: Events and Themes (1980), is a study of one of the most energizing of these struggles. The new national government that emerged has been brilliantly portrayed in Lloyd E. Eastman, The Abortive Revolution: China Under Nationalist Rule, 1927-1937 (1974). Among the interesting rebuttals to some of Eastman's arguments is Joseph Fewsmith, Party, State, and Local Elites in Republican China: Merchant Organizations and Politics in Shanghai, 1890-1930 (1985). Events of the war with Japan are discussed in Hsi-sheng Ch'i, Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937-45 (1982); and Lloyd E. Eastman, Seeds of Destruction: Nationalist China in War and Revolution, 1937-1949 (1984). Works dealing with wartime conditions in Nationalist areas are Chia-ao Chang, The Inflationary Spiral: The Experience in China, 1939-1950 (1958); and Charles F.
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