the means for the production and showing of motion pictures. It includes not only the motion-picture camera and projector but also such technologies as those involved in recording sound, in editing both picture and sound, in creating special effects, and in producing animation. Motion-picture technology is a curious blend of the old and the new. In one piece of equipment state-of-the-art digital electronics may be working in tandem with a mechanical system invented in 1895. Furthermore, the technology of motion pictures is based not only on the prior invention of still photography but also on a combination of several more or less independent technologies; that is, camera and projector design, film manufacture and processing, sound recording and reproduction, and lighting and light measurement. Additional reading The Focal Encyclopedia of Film & Television Techniques (1969), is a fairly complete reference source. Raymond Fielding (comp.), A Technological History of Motion Pictures and Television: An Anthology from the Pages of the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (1967, reprinted 1983), provides a remarkable survey. The society's own invaluable publications include Don V. Kloepfel (ed.), Motion-Picture Projection and Theatre Presentation Manual (1969); Frank P. Clark, Special Effects in Motion Pictures: Some Methods for Producing Mechanical Special Effects (1966); and Widescreen Motion-Picture Systems (1965). See also Raymond Fielding, The Technique of Special Effects Cinematography, 4th ed. (1985). Other works include Barry Salt, Film Style and Technology: History and Analysis (1983), the evolution of film equipment; Steve Neale, Cinema and Technology: Image, Sound, Colour (1985), an economic and aesthetic context for the emergence of the motion-picture technologies; and R.W.G. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour, 3rd ed. (1975), an extended discussion of specific technology. Charles G. Clarke, Professional Cinematography, rev. ed. (1968), is an older but still valuable brief summary; and Fred H. Detmers, American Cinematographer Manual, 6th ed. (1986), is a later informative handbook.Dominic Case, Motion Picture Film Processing (1985), is a definitive text. Paul M. Honor, A Handbook of Sound Recording: A Text for Motion Picture and General Sound Recording (1980), covers sound production. Glen Ballou (ed.), Handbook for Sound Engineers: The New Audio Cyclopedia (1987), is an extended reference manual. Works on editing techniques include Karel Reisz and Gavin Millar, The Technique of Film Editing, 2nd enlarged ed. (1968, reprinted 1982); William B. Adams, Handbook of Motion Picture Production (1977); and Ernest Walter, The Technique of the Film Cutting Room, 2nd rev. ed. (1982). Detailed techniques in high-speed and scientific cinematography are discussed in J.S. Courtney-Pratt (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on High-Speed Photography (1962); and William G. Hyzer and William G. Chace (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress on High-Speed Photography (1970). John Halas and Roger Manvell, The Technique of Film Animation, 4th ed. (1976), is the standard text on the subject; in Art in Movement: New Directions in Animation (1970), the same authors explore the link between animation and kinetic art forms. Thomas W. Hoffer, Animation, a Reference Guide (1981), is a scholarly guide with many bibliographic essays. For information on computer graphics, see Proceedings of the Conference of the National Computer Graphics Association (annual). Information on state-of-the-art technologies is provided in the following monthly periodicals: SMPTE Journal, BKSTS Journal, Millimeter, On Location, and American Cinematographer. Animation Figure 9: Twenty-four frames, the length of film projected each second, from If You Could See The basis of all animation is the building up, frame by frame, of the moving picture by exact timing and choreography of both movement and sound. All film movement is achieved by projecting during every second of time a certain number of frames, normally 24, each a still photograph minutely varied from its predecessor, which record the successive phases of the subject's movement before the camera. The same motion, or a stylized or caricatured version of it, can be achieved by stop-motion or stop-action cinematography, the frame-by-frame photographing of a similarly phased series of drawings (see Figure 9) or the phased movement of such objects as puppets, marionettes, or commercial products. And, as in live filming, the camera itself can create movement by tracking into a scene or panning across it. The great majority of animated films are short and have always been so for obvious reasons. When each second of action requires, for the fullest animation, 24 adjustments of the image, a minute's action may call for many hundreds of drawings. The range of techniques in animation production is broad. The basic form is the simple, outlined figure, however, that moves against a simple, outlined background. Figural basis of animation The development of cel (or cell) animation permitted the phased movements of the figures to be traced onto a succession of transparent celluloid sheets and superimposed, in turn, onto a single static drawing representing the background. With this technique the background could be drawn in somewhat greater detail and tonal qualities introduced through shading, while the figure itself became a black silhouette, blotting out the background when the cels were superimposed. Multiple cel animationthe superimposition of several cel layers, each carrying different figures or parts of figures requiring special care in animationallowed increased complexity in the image with minimum work load for the artist-animators. With the more modern forms of colour film introduced in the early 1930s, opaque paints and coloured inks could be used on the cels. Cel animation required the use of a so-called rostrum camera, which photographs downward onto the background with its series of superimposed cel layers pegged into place to secure accurate registration. Motion pictures for scientific purposes As soon as motion pictures were invented, they were applied in the recording of scientific phenomena. The recording of an experiment in which a number of things happen at about the same time is especially appropriate for motion-picture recording. Time-lapse cinematography There are many occasions on which the cinematography can be carried out at normal speeds. There are other situations, however, in which the changes occur very slowly, so slowly that the eye does not discern the change. One example is the opening of a flower blossom. In such a situation the technique used is to take successive pictures at intervals of, for example, an hour, taking great care not to move the camera or the plant and to project the resulting film at normal motion-picture speed. The projected picture will disclose many details in the development from the bud to the completed flower that are not apparent in ordinary visual observation. Other phenomena can be studied in this way. These techniques require merely a standard camera that can take single exposures, plus a timed triggering device that can take the exposures at the desired intervals. The rest of the technique is mostly a matter of preventing undesired motions of camera and subject. Professional motion-picture production Cameras The principles of operation of modern professional motion-picture cameras are much the same as those of earlier times, although the mechanisms have been refined. A film is exposed behind a lens and is moved intermittently, with a shutter to stop the light while the film is moving. In the process, the film is unrolled from a supply reel, through the intermittent to the gate where the exposure takes place, and then on to the take-up reel. Principal parts Lenses have gone through a continuous evolution in the last half century, for both still and motion-picture photography. The two major objectives have been to focus properly all the colours of the image at the film plane (i.e., to make the lens achromatic) and to focus portions of a beam coming from different portions of the lens, the centre or the edges, at the same point on the film (i.e., anastigmatic). Both objectives require solution for as large a lens opening as possible, in order to capture maximum light for the exposure, and for as wide a field of view as will be needed in the use of the lens. In order to solve these problems, lenses have been made with more and more components. Also, more types of glass have been discovered and developed, to give better achromatic performance. It was found, about 1939, that a special coating of the glass-to-air surface of a lens component could greatly diminish reflections from this surface without affecting other properties of the lens. The use of such coatings improved image contrast by reducing the stray rays that were produced by reflections in a multiple-component lens. Coatings also reduce loss of light by reflection in the desired rays. Coating developments have permitted the manufacture of lenses with many more components than had previously been possible. Long experience with both motion-picture and still cameras has shown the need for a variety of focal lengths (ranging from ultrawide angle to telephoto) to photograph scenes under the best conditions. To make changing focal lengths more convenient, the lenses have sometimes been mounted on a turret, so that one out of a set of three lenses may be quickly selected. For motion pictures this would mean an interruption in the action depicted. A continuous change would be more desirable. When two lenses are used in a tandem combination, the focal length of the combination varies according to the separation between the two components. For example, when two thin converging lenses are mounted close together, the combined focal length is shorter than when they are separated a certain distance. Thus, the focal length of the combination can be continuously varied over a range merely by changing the separation. This observation led to the conception of camera lenses of variable focal length in which the variation is obtained by moving one or more elements. One simple design consists of two fixed convex (converging) lenses of unequal power with a movable concave (diverging) lens between them. When the central concave lens is located close to the front convex element, the combination focal length can be shorter (and the image therefore smaller) than when it is located close to the rear convex element. The design can be made such that, with the two convex elements remaining fixed, a distant view can remain almost in focus on the film as the middle element is moved. Exact focus for this arrangement, however, could not be attained. Thus, for lenses of this design, a cam device has in the past been provided to move the front convex element a short distance as the middle element is moved over its range, to keep the focus exact. This kind of lens has come to be called a zoom lens. By increasing the number of elements, the focus can be kept exact without the need of a correcting cam. Other improvements include increasing the range of focal lengths covered, increasing the effective lens aperture, increasing the angular field of view seen by the film, and improving the colour correction with radically new glass materials. For a long time the change in focal lengths was carried out manually. More recently, the use of an electric motor drive has allowed a smoother change, with less distraction to the cameraman. The general principles utilized in the film transport system have remained much the same over recent years, at least for the 35-mm film. The films are usually preloaded in lighttight reel cases (called magazines), with an exposed loop between the supply and take-up reels. This loop is quickly fitted into the camera mechanism when loading. The intermittent is usually a claw-type mechanism, sometimes a dual-fork claw that pulls down four sprocket holes at a time. The fork protrudes and recedes to engage the sprocket holes. Some cameras are equipped with pin-registering mechanisms, which hold the film firmly in place in the exposure gate, with the pins engaging sprocket holes. In the early days of sound films, the noise made by the intermittent and other moving parts in the camera was loud enough to interfere with the sound picked up by the microphone. Cameras were sheathed (blimped) with outer, separate sound-absorbing materials. The sound insulation is now usually self-contained in the camera. Before the introduction of sound, the film and intermittent were driven by a crank operated by the cameraman. With sound, considerably more uniformity in the speed of the film drive became necessary. For this and other reasons, the film drive in modern cameras is provided by an accurately controlled electric motor, which maintains the standardized sound speed of 24 frames per second. The shutter keeps light from striking the film while it is moving from one frame to the next. A variable shutter opening can also be used to reduce exposure when it is necessary or desirable to do this without reducing the lens aperture. The shutter is in most cases rotary and is synchronized with the intermittent. Viewfinding for motion pictures is especially critical: whereas still photographs can be cropped during enlargement or printing, the film image must be framed as it will appear on the screen. Older cameras employed a mechanical rack-over that enabled the camera operator to sight directly through the aperture with the film transport out of the way. When an external viewfinder is used, the image seen through it is not exactly the same as that photographed. The viewfinder must be angled so that it and the taking lens both point at the centre of the subject. A system of cams in the focus mechanism of the camera keeps the viewfinder image free of parallax (viewpoint difference) by adjustment from infinity to the near-point of the lens with a separate cam for each focal length. Most cameras used today are of the reflex type. A partially reflecting mirror (beam splitter) is positioned in the door of the camera body or built into the lens itself with a parallel viewing tube. The mirror diverts to the viewfinder some of the light rays coming through the lens. This method's major drawback is that it takes away part of the light that would otherwise be used for the exposure. A much-admired viewing system that allows the full amount of light to reach the film is the rotating mirror shutter employed in the Arriflex camera. Light is reflected into the viewfinder only when the shutter blade covers the film as it advances to the next frame. This arrangement, however, is not wholly free from objections. Chief among these is that the arrangement opens a return path for light from the viewer's eyepiece to reach the film. The eyepiece must fit snugly around the eye while the viewfinder is in use, and the finder must be closed completely while it is not in use. In addition, since the camera shutter is closed only once per frame, the image will be subject to a distinct flicker, to which the cameraman must adjust himself. Some cameras incorporate a video assist or video tap wherein the viewfinder image is electronically fed to a video monitor or video recorder, thus allowing evaluation of the take by videotape replay. Focusing has also been a perennial problem for the motion-picture camera. On the camera the position of the lens is precisely indicated on a calibrated scale. The actor's location on the set was formerly marked on the floor and the exact distance to the camera measured with a tape. The actor moved to previously marked places, and an assistant to the cameraman, called a focus puller, or follow-focus assistant, kept the lens in adjustment. Various electrical devices have now been introduced for remote adjustment by the assistant. Where a through-the-lens finder is used, focusing can be done directly, using the viewfinder image. Also, experienced cameramen can estimate distances quite closely. It is usual to generate some kind of signal in synchronism with the intermittent when an auxiliary, magnetic-tape sound recorder is used, so that the sound record can later be synchronized exactly with the picture. The sync-generator provides a record of the speed of the camera motor; each frame of picture causes 2.5 cycles of a 60-hertz pulse to be recorded on the sync-track of the sound tape. A newer system is based on the time code originally developed for videotape. A separate generator uses a digital audio signal to provide each frame of film with its own number. For each take the time code generator is set to zero; when the camera and film are running, the generator starts to emit numbers that represent real-time in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. In one system, a light-emitting diode next to the camera aperture records the information as ordinary numbers that can be read by the eye; in others, the binary numbers are contained in a control surface of magnetic particles on the base side of the film. One hundred feet of 35-mm film would be rendered in time code as 00:01:07:08, or one minute, seven seconds, eight frames. Corresponding information is recorded on the address track of the audio tape. The time code's last two digits, which represent frames, go up to either 24 or 30. Material intended for theatres is photographed at the international sound projection speed of 24 frames per second. Material filmed for American television is often shot at 30 frames per second (in countries with 50 hertz AC power, the rate is 25 frames per second). The camera is often supplied with electric motors to perform miscellaneous functions, such as to provide smooth rotation (panning) of the camera or to change the magnification in a zoom lens (or change lenses in a turret). The camera is normally provided with footage indicators to indicate the amount of film left unexposed and with frame counters used when it is desired to superimpose a second exposure. There can also be an inching knob to reposition the film to a given frame for multiple exposures. When the camera is used at a speed different from standard, a tachometer may be provided to indicate the actual speed. The cameras that have so far been described are for the standard 35-mm film. Cameras for 65-mm film are generally quite similar, though heavier. The 16-mm professional camera may differ from the 35-mm in the form of its case, in its use of a spring-operated film drive, and in its method of film loading, as a result of its development from a former amateur camera. On the other hand it may be a smaller version and have the same features as the 35-mm model by the same manufacturer.

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